Bạn đang xem bài viết Transitions – The Writing Center • University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill / 2023 được cập nhật mới nhất trên website Hoisinhvienqnam.edu.vn. Hy vọng những thông tin mà chúng tôi đã chia sẻ là hữu ích với bạn. Nếu nội dung hay, ý nghĩa bạn hãy chia sẻ với bạn bè của mình và luôn theo dõi, ủng hộ chúng tôi để cập nhật những thông tin mới nhất.
What this handout is about
In this crazy, mixed-up world of ours, transitions glue our ideas and our essays together. This handout will introduce you to some useful transitional expressions and help you employ them effectively.
The function and importance of transitions
In both academic writing and professional writing, your goal is to convey information clearly and concisely, if not to convert the reader to your way of thinking. Transitions help you to achieve these goals by establishing logical connections between sentences, paragraphs, and sections of your papers. In other words, transitions tell readers what to do with the information you present to them. Whether single words, quick phrases, or full sentences, they function as signs that tell readers how to think about, organize, and react to old and new ideas as they read through what you have written.
Transitions signal relationships between ideas—relationships such as: “Another example coming up—stay alert!” or “Here’s an exception to my previous statement” or “Although this idea appears to be true, here’s the real story.” Basically, transitions provide the reader with directions for how to piece together your ideas into a logically coherent argument. Transitions are not just verbal decorations that embellish your paper by making it sound or read better. They are words with particular meanings that tell the reader to think and react in a particular way to your ideas. In providing the reader with these important cues, transitions help readers understand the logic of how your ideas fit together.
Signs that you might need to work on your transitions
How can you tell whether you need to work on your transitions? Here are some possible clues:
Your readers (instructors, friends, or classmates) tell you that they had trouble following your organization or train of thought.
You tend to write the way you think—and your brain often jumps from one idea to another pretty quickly.
You wrote your paper in several discrete “chunks” and then pasted them together.
You are working on a group paper; the draft you are working on was created by pasting pieces of several people’s writing together.
Since the clarity and effectiveness of your transitions will depend greatly on how well you have organized your paper, you may want to evaluate your paper’s organization before you work on transitions. In the margins of your draft, summarize in a word or short phrase what each paragraph is about or how it fits into your analysis as a whole. This exercise should help you to see the order of and connection between your ideas more clearly.
If after doing this exercise you find that you still have difficulty linking your ideas together in a coherent fashion, your problem may not be with transitions but with organization. For help in this area (and a more thorough explanation of the “reverse outlining” technique described in the previous paragraph), please see the Writing Center’s handout on organization.
How transitions work
The organization of your written work includes two elements: (1) the order in which you have chosen to present the different parts of your discussion or argument, and (2) the relationships you construct between these parts. Transitions cannot substitute for good organization, but they can make your organization clearer and easier to follow. Take a look at the following example:
El Pais, a Latin American country, has a new democratic government after having been a dictatorship for many years. Assume that you want to argue that El Pais is not as democratic as the conventional view would have us believe.
One way to effectively organize your argument would be to present the conventional view and then to provide the reader with your critical response to this view. So, in Paragraph A you would enumerate all the reasons that someone might consider El Pais highly democratic, while in Paragraph B you would refute these points. The transition that would establish the logical connection between these two key elements of your argument would indicate to the reader that the information in paragraph B contradicts the information in paragraph A. As a result, you might organize your argument, including the transition that links paragraph A with paragraph B, in the following manner:
Paragraph A: points that support the view that El Pais’s new government is very democratic.
Transition: Despite the previous arguments, there are many reasons to think that El Pais’s new government is not as democratic as typically believed.
Paragraph B: points that contradict the view that El Pais’s new government is very democratic.
In this case, the transition words “Despite the previous arguments,” suggest that the reader should not believe paragraph A and instead should consider the writer’s reasons for viewing El Pais’s democracy as suspect.
As the example suggests, transitions can help reinforce the underlying logic of your paper’s organization by providing the reader with essential information regarding the relationship between your ideas. In this way, transitions act as the glue that binds the components of your argument or discussion into a unified, coherent, and persuasive whole.
Types of transitions
Now that you have a general idea of how to go about developing effective transitions in your writing, let us briefly discuss the types of transitions your writing will use.
The types of transitions available to you are as diverse as the circumstances in which you need to use them. A transition can be a single word, a phrase, a sentence, or an entire paragraph. In each case, it functions the same way: First, the transition either directly summarizes the content of a preceding sentence, paragraph, or section or implies such a summary (by reminding the reader of what has come before). Then, it helps the reader anticipate or comprehend the new information that you wish to present.
Transitions between sections: Particularly in longer works, it may be necessary to include transitional paragraphs that summarize for the reader the information just covered and specify the relevance of this information to the discussion in the following section.
Transitions within paragraphs: As with transitions between sections and paragraphs, transitions within paragraphs act as cues by helping readers to anticipate what is coming before they read it. Within paragraphs, transitions tend to be single words or short phrases.
Effectively constructing each transition often depends upon your ability to identify words or phrases that will indicate for the reader the kind of logical relationships you want to convey. The table below should make it easier for you to find these words or phrases. Whenever you have trouble finding a word, phrase, or sentence to serve as an effective transition, refer to the information in the table for assistance. Look in the left column of the table for the kind of logical relationship you are trying to express. Then look in the right column of the table for examples of words or phrases that express this logical relationship.
Keep in mind that each of these words or phrases may have a slightly different meaning. Consult a dictionary or writer’s handbook if you are unsure of the exact meaning of a word or phrase.
LOGICAL RELATIONSHIP TRANSITIONAL EXPRESSION
Similarity also, in the same way, just as … so too, likewise, similarly
Exception/Contrast but, however, in spite of, on the one hand … on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, in contrast, on the contrary, still, yet
Sequence/Order first, second, third, … next, then, finally
Time after, afterward, at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously, subsequently, then
Example for example, for instance, namely, specifically, to illustrate
Emphasis even, indeed, in fact, of course, truly
Place/Position above, adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front, in back, nearby, there
Cause and Effect accordingly, consequently, hence, so, therefore, thus
Additional Support or Evidence additionally, again, also, and, as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then
Conclusion/Summary finally, in a word, in brief, briefly, in conclusion, in the end, in the final analysis, on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize, in sum, to sum up, in summary
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License. You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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What is Merge and Centre ?
Merge & Center is a feature in excel that combines multiple cells and centers the contents of the first cell. You can merge columns and rows too. This is used to combine multiple cells into a single cell and create the main headers for Excel dashboards in Microsoft Excel.
There are four options available in Merge and Center:-
2nd Merge Across : This feature works only on the selected rows and combines the multple columns of the row
but the text in the merged cell will be right aligned.
3rd Merge Cells : This feature just combines the selected cells
4th Unmerge Cells : This feature Unmerge the selected cells to their default place
Note: Merge and Centre option takes the text of only one cell which will be upper-left most cell while performing Merge and center.
You have to be careful about your content in the cells which is to be merged. So let’s get this by an example below.
So we will use the F4 key to perform the last function again.
How to Unmerge Cells in Excel
So when you have two or cell merged and you want to unmerge them, use merge and center button.
Select merged Cells
And It’s done. The cells are unmerged.
Now remember that the value that was in the merged cell will be only in the left-upper cell and the other cell will be empty, blank, null, void and black hole as you can see in the below image.
I found some frequently asked questions related to Merge and Center in Excel.
Hope this article about using Merge and Center in Microsoft Excel is explanatory. Find more articles on using more keyboard shortcuts here. If you liked our blogs, share it with your friends on Facebook. And also you can follow us on Twitter and Facebook. We would love to hear from you, do let us know how we can improve, complement or innovate our work and make it better for you. Write us at firstname.lastname@example.org
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To help your students make their conclusion paragraphs a little more unique, it helps to provide a nuts-and-bolts lesson on conclusion transition words. You’ve probably already worked on general transition phrases as you broke down how to write a strong body paragraph, but conclusion transition words are easy to skip over! Try these tips to get your students ready to find another word for “in conclusion,” and you’ll have given them a useful skill for life.
Brainstorming Conclusion Transition Words
It’s always a good idea to see where your students are at when you start a new topic. Try starting with a brainstorming session to see if your budding writers can come up with conclusion transition words on their own. Get them all down on a piece of chart paper and hang it somewhere everyone will be able to see it when it comes time to write.
Research Conclusion Transition Words
If the brainstorming session was harder than you thought it would be, now’s the time to add some thesaurus work to your lesson plan. Have students work independently – or perhaps with a partner – to look up words related to “conclusion” and craft some more interesting conclusion transition words based on their findings. You can come back together as a whole group to add to your original brainstorming document or to make more polished classroom posters.
Printable Reference of Conclusion Transition Words
It’s also helpful to hand students a reference sheet of common conclusion transition words to make their essay writing easier. After all, you don’t want them to struggle and stress about getting that conclusion started when they should be focusing their energies on the content! You can make your own, or you can grab a quick printable worksheet of conclusion transition words to photocopy for your students to keep in their writing notebooks.
Examples of Conclusion Transition Words
Not sure if you’ve covered all the bases yet? Try adding these concluding phrases and conclusion transition words to your repertoire:
Conclusion Transition Words Sentence Examples
It’s also a good idea to share as many well written conclusions as you can with your students. Make this fun by adding in conclusion transition words to fairy tales, fables and other stories everyone knows:
In summary, Goldilocks was a very messy and very picky little girl.
Finally, the tortoise crossed the finish line to prove that “slow and steady” really does win the race.
All things considered, being locked in a castle with talking dishes and furniture may have been the best thing that ever happened to Belle.
In the final analysis, the third little pig was very generous when he allowed his lazy brothers to hide in his house made of bricks.
Once you have worked with your students on conclusion transition words to get them started on their conclusion paragraphs, it’s time to get writing! Pick some conclusion transition words, gather your thoughts and put pencil to paper. Remember, these lessons will help writers of all ages – and even you! – come up with some new ways to end a paper so you don’t sound like a broken record. Now that you know what to do, all that’s left is to write! (Or to get started on grading that stack of papers you collected from the newly minted essay writers in your classroom!)
Administrative Action Verbs Push Along Verbs Stop Verbs Helper Verbs Get & Give Verbs Creative Verbs Appraise/Study Verbs Control Verbs ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION VERBS Offer an informed opinion or give specialized information to others. adapt Modify or change to fit specific or new situations. administer Manage or direct. (Generally requires some additional explanation to show specific detail.) See manage. appoint To set officially, arrange. approve Exercise final and decisive authority, causing action to use money, manpower, materials, or equipment. arrange To make preparations for, to plan. authorize Approve or commit an act implying subsequent action by others. consult control Direct, regulate, or guide the use of money, methods, equipment, and materials. Also, the process of monitoring activities to ensure conformance with planned results. coordinate Regulate, adjust or direct the related actions of others in order to attain desired results. decide To select a course of action. delegate Entrust to another person tasks or duties which require exercise of some of the authority of the person originally responsible, as “To delegate an administrative assistant to represent the department at conferences.” determine To fix conclusively, regulate. To decide by choice of alternatives. direct Govern or control work operations by establishing the implementing objectives, practices and methods. enforce To effect or gain by force. To carry out effectively. establish To institute permanently by enactment or agreement. execute Put into effect or carry out methods, plans, etc. initiate Set going or introduce. manage Plan, organize, direct, control, and evaluate operation of an organizational unit, with responsibility for the output. order Arrange or command to come to a specified place or decision. organize To set up an administrative structure for. To arrange by systematic planning and united effort. plan To design or plot a scheme or project by means or method devised for doing something to achieve an end. reject To refuse to accept, consider or submit to. require To ask for by right and authority, request. review Consider or examine facts or results for accuracy, completeness and suitability. supervise Personally oversee or control work performance and conduct of others, where there is opportunity for control or inspection of work performed. train Teach, demonstrate, or guide others in the performance of assigned work. back to top PUSH ALONG VERBS activate Set up or formally introduce with necessary personnel or equipment. encourage Give help, inspire or pay patronage to. expediate Accelerate the process or progress of a plan, idea. further implement Carry out or fulfill by taking action. maintain Keep in satisfactory condition. motivate Provide incentive or drive. back to top STOP VERBS check To proof or review for errors. delete Eliminate or wipe out. prevent Keep from happening or holding back. return Go back in thought or action. Give an official account to a superior. stop Keep from carrying out a proposed action. back to top HELPER VERBS Offer an informed opinion or give specialized information to others. aid Provide with what is useful or necessary for achieving an end. cooperate Act jointly with others. Act or work with others to obtain a mutual benefit. counsel Advise or consult. explain Make plain or understandable. guide Direct, supervise, influence or superintend the training of people. instruct Teach, demonstrate, or by other methods impart knowledge to others. Direct that a specific activity be performed, may include directing how it is to be performed. participate To take part or have a share in a project, group. protect Maintain status or integrity of project, idea. serve Comply with the commands and demands of a boss, group. show Propose or mention an idea as workable or desirable. suggest ? back to top GET & GIVE VERBS accept Give admittance or approval to. accumulate Increase gradually in quantity or number. acquire Come into possession or control of an item or items. arrange for To make preparations for, to plan. buy Acquire possession, ownership or rights to the use of services, items. collect Gather or exact information or materials from a number of persons or sources. compile Put together information or assemble data in a new form. deliver Send or bring a desired object. distribute Deliver or hand out to several or many. exchange Give and receive reciprocally. forward Send goods or information onward. furnish Provide or equip with what is needed. gather Bring together or collect parts of a group. get Obtain or receive. give Grant or yield to another. inform Communicate knowledge to others. inquire Ask or search into. issue Make available through distribution. keep Preserve or maintain in a good and orderly condition. mail To send by the postal service. notify Give notice or a report on an occurrence or information. obtain Gain or possess. pick up ? procure Get possession or obtain by particular care and effort. provide To supply support to meet a need, make available. pull purchase Gain or acquire by labor, money. recall Call back or cancel. receive Come into possession of or acquire an item, idea. recruit Increase numbers of a group or bring in new members. render Deliver or hand down. report Give an account or make a written summary or statement. secure Put beyond hazard or receive lasting control. sell Give up property in exchange for money. send Deliver or dispatch as means of communication or delivery. solicit To make a petition or request for services, money. submit Yield or surrender to authority. supply Make materials available for use. take Get or seize into possession. transfer Pass over from one person to another. withdraw Back away or remove. back to top CREATIVE VERBS create Produce through imaginative skill. design Create or fashion a plan or idea. develop Disclose, discover, perfect, or unfold a plan or idea, in detail, gradually. Implies study and/or experiment unless otherwise stated. When used as “to develop subordinates”, see train. devise Form in the mind by combinations of ideas, new applications of principles, or new arrangement of parts. establish To institute permanently by enactment or agreement. estimate Forecast future quantities, values, sizes, extents, etc., either on the basis of judgment or calculations. Frequently, estimating is shared with others, in which case it is more precise to use “estimate” as a noun, and to state the job’s function in relation thereto, i.e., originates, analyzes, endorses, approves, etc., estimates of… forecast Predict future events based on specified assumptions. formulate Put into a systemized expression or statement. iniyiate Set going or introduce. install To set up for use. originate Begin or initiate. plan To design or plot a scheme or project by means or method devised for doing something to achieve an end. project Plan, figure, or estimate for the future. schedule Appoint a fixed time. back to top APPRAISE/STUDY VERBS analyze Identify the elements of a whole and critically examine and relate these component parts separately and/or in relation to the whole. appraise Judge as to quality; compare critically with established standards. ascertain Find out or learn with certainty. check To proof or review for errors. compare To examine characteristics to discover similarities or differences. consider To observe or think about with regard to taking some action. criticize To evaluate and judge merits or faults. develop Disclose, discover, perfect, or unfold a plan or idea, in detail, gradually. Implies study and/or experiment unless otherwise stated. When used as “to develop subordinates”, see train. evaluate Appraise, to determine value, condition, significance or worth. examine Investigate in order to determine progress, fitness or knowledge. forecast Predict future events based on specified assumptions. identify The act of proving identity. inspect Examine materials, equipment, reports, work, etc., to determine quality, suitability for use, etc. interpret Explain to others (orally or in writing) the meaning or significance of something. interview Obtain information through questioning. investigate Uncover facts by systematically finding them, conducting a search, and examining various sources. measure Control or regulate by a standard or in measured amounts. plan To design or plot a scheme or project by means or method devised for doing something to achieve an end. rate Estimate or determine the relative value, rank, or amount of an item. research Specific inquiry involving prolonged and critical investigation, having for its aim the study of new facts and their interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions or theories that may be affected by newly discovered factors, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions. Example: Technical research to develop new products for the company. resolve Deal with a problem, dilemma successfully. review Consider or examine facts or results for accuracy, completeness and suitability. solve Find a solution, answer, or explanation for a question or problem. study Apply thought to any subject of investigation in order to arrive at the most suitable conclusion. summarize To tell and reduce a story, idea. survey Examine a condition, situation or value. test Assign a value or evaluate an item by a given test. weigh Merit consideration as to importance. back to top CONTROL VERBS allocate Assign or apportion for a specific purpose or to a particular person. audit Perform a formal examination into a company’s formal accounts. check To proof or review for errors. conserve Slow or block the progress of something control Direct, regulate, or guide the use of money, methods, equipment, and materials. Also, the process of monitoring activities to ensure conformance with planned results. edit Alter, adapt or refine a written text, concept, or idea. enforce To effect or gain by force. To carry out effectively. ensure Make sure, certain, or safe. guarantee Undertake to answer for debt and default or promise security. inspect Examine materials, equipment, reports, work, etc., to determine quality, suitability for use, etc. regulate Fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate. restrict Place under restriction as to use or distribution. review Consider or examine facts or results for accuracy, completeness and suitability. verify Confirm or substantiate by oath, law, or other documentation. back to top
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