List Of Unusual Words Beginning With C

caballine

of, like or pertaining to or suited to a horse

cabas

woman’s work basket or handbag

cabasset

light iron helmet

cable

heavy rope or chain for mooring a ship

caboched

heraldic animal shown in full face with no neck or body

cabochon

highly polished convex gem

caboose

kitchen on the deck of a ship

cabotage

shipping and sailing between points in the same country

cabré

flying upside down with tail down

cabrilla

Atlantic sea bass

cabriole

curved furniture leg ending in a ball; exuberant dance or caper

cabriolet

two-wheeled carriage

cacaesthesia

morbid sensation

cachaemic

having diseased or poisoned blood

cachalot

large whale with teeth in the lower jaw

cachepot

ornamental container used to conceal a flowerpot

cachet

a seal of approval; a mark of prestige

cachexic

having an unhealthy physical or mental state

cachinnate

to laugh loudly and inappropriately

cacidrosis

smelly sweat

cack

rubbish; worthless nonsense

cacodemomania

pathological belief that one is inhabited by an evil spirit

cacodoxy

bad doctrine or wrong opinion

cacoepy

poor or wrong pronunciation

cacoethes

insatiable desire or mania; bad habit

cacogen

antisocial person

cacogenics

study of racial degeneration

cacography

bad handwriting or spelling

cacolet

military mule litter

cacology

bad choice of words or faulty pronunciation

cacomistle

raccoon-like animal of the American southwest

caconym

wrongly derived name

cacotopia

a state in which everything is as bad as it can be

cacuminal

retroflex, pertaining to a point, crown, top or peak

cadastre

record of ownership and value of property

cadge

to beg or sponge from another

cadilesker

chief judge in the Turkish empire

cadrans

instrument by which a gem is adjusted while being cut

caducary

passing or expiring due to lapse or forfeit

caduceator

herald; messenger

caducity

being of a transitory or impermanent nature

caenogenesis

process of growth in individual not common in its species

caesaropapism

control of the church by a secular ruler

caesious

bluish or greyish green

caespitose

growing in clusters or tufts

caesura

natural breathing space in a line of verse

caesura

vertical line in a text used to indicate a pause or prosodic break

cafard

depression; the blues

cagamosis

unhappy marriage

cagoule

lightweight waterproof hooded garment

caiman

small alligator-like reptile

cairngorm

yellow-brown quartz

caisson

vehicle or chest for holding ammunition

caitiff

base; cowardly; despicable

cakewalk

prancing stage dance with backward tilt

calamanco

satin twilled woollen fabric

calamist

piper; one who plays using a reed

calamus

quill or reed used as a pen

calando

slowing with gradually lowering volume

calandra

thick-bodied Mediterranean lark

calash

light low-wheeled carriage with folding top

calathiform

cup-shaped

calathus

fruit basket carried on the head

calcar

furnace or oven for annealing

calcariferous

having or bearing spurs

calcariform

spur-shaped

calceiform

shaped like a slipper

calciferous

bearing lime

calciform

pebble-shaped

calcifuge

plant that will not tolerate limy soil

calcimine

to whitewash

calcine

to burn so as to drive out water and carbon dioxide

calcivorous

feeding on or living in limestone

calcographer

one who draws with crayons or pastels

calefacient

warming; anything that warms

calefactory

a monastery sitting room

calender

machine with rollers which presses paper or cloth

calenture

tropical fever due to heat exposure

calesa

small two-wheeled horse-drawn buggy

calescence

increase in heat

calico

plain white cotton

calicular

like a chalice or cup

caliginous

misty; dark; dim; obscure

caliology

study of bird’s nests

calipace

turtle’s carapace

calk

pointed piece on a horseshoe to prevent slipping

calligram

design using the letters of a word

callipygous

having beautiful buttocks

callisteia

awards given for beauty

callithump

boisterous and noisy parade

callow

unfledged; inexperienced

calodemon

good or beneficial spirit

calorifacient

producing or generating heat

calorifics

study of heat

calorimeter

instrument for measuring absorbed or evolved heat

calotte

Roman Catholic skullcap

calque

word or expression introduced into a language by literally translating it

calumet

ornamented ceremonial pipe

calumniate

to slander; misrepresent; besmirch

calumny

vile misrepresentation

calvary

experience of intense mental suffering

calver

to prepare fish while alive or freshly caught

calycine

of, like or pertaining to a cup or calyx

calyx

outer covering of a flower

camaca

fine silk fabric

camaïeu

monotonous or uninteresting play or literary work

camail

chainmail armour for the neck and shoulders

camarilla

secret society of favourites of the king

camber

slight arch or convexity to a beam or deck of a ship

cambist

person skilled in the science of financial exchange

cambistry

science of international exchange

cambium

soft tissue found in trees

cambresine

fine linen fabric

cambric

fine thin white cotton or linen fabric

cameline

of, like or pertaining to camels

camelious

jocular term describing camel’s hump

camelot

newspaper vendor

camelry

troops mounted on camels

cameralism

mercantilism designed to increase a ruler’s power

camerated

divided into separate chambers

cameriere

waiter or valet

camerlengo

papal treasurer

camisole

straitjacket used for unruly prisoners

camlet

strong waterproof silk or wool fabric

camorra

group united for nefarious or traitorous ends

camouflet

mine used to destroy underground enemy emplacement

campagnol

short-tailed field mouse

campaniform

bell-shaped

campanile

freestanding bell tower on church property

campanology

the art of bell ringing

campanulate

shaped like a bell

campestral

of, like or pertaining to the country; pertaining to level ground

camsteary

perverse; unruly

canaille

riffraff; proletarian; the mob; rabble

canaliculate

grooved or channelled lengthwise

canard

false rumour; hoax

canary

lively Renaissance courtly dance

cancellarial

of, like or pertaining to a chancellor

cancellous

having a porous structure

cancerophobia

fear of cancer

cancriform

shaped like a crab

cancrine

of, like or pertaining to crabs; palindromic

cancrizans

moving backwards; repeating a musical theme backwards

candela

unit of luminous intensity

candent

heated to whiteness

candescent

glowing hotly

canephor

sculpted figure carrying a basket on the head

canescent

hoary; tending to become white or grey

caneva

fancy woollen fabric made to resemble canvas

canezou

woman’s garment like a blouse

cang

wooden yoke hung around a criminal’s neck

canicide

killer of a dog

canicular

of, like or pertaining to the dog star

canities

whiteness of the hair

cannel

bevel on the edge of a chisel

cannelure

groove or fluting

cannikin

small can or drinking vessel

cannonade

an attack with heavy artillery

cannonarchy

government by superior firepower or by cannons

cannular

hollow or tube-shaped

canoness

woman living in a community under a religious rule

canonicate

the rank or office of a cannon

canophilia

love or fondness for dogs

canopus

vase for holding dead individual’s inner organs

canorous

musical; singing; resonant

canque

Chinese cotton fabric

cantabank

strolling singer; second-rate musician

cantative

of, like or pertaining to singing

cantatrice

female singer

canter

person who makes hypocritical or affected statements

canterbury

stand with divisions for holding books or music

canthus

angle between eyelids at the corner of the eye

canticle

short holy song or sung prayer

cantillate

to chant or intone

cantle

corner, edge or slice of anything

canton

dexter chief region of a heraldic field

cantonment

small military town

cantorial

located on the north side of the choir in a church

canzone

instrumental work that is melodious or song-like

caparison

ornamented covering for a horse

caparison

armour for a horse

capeline

surgical bandage for the stump of amputated limb; small iron skullcap

capelocracy

government by shopkeepers

capias

writ authorizing the arrest of a person

capillaceous

hairlike

capilotade

stewed meat dish

capitalism

doctrine that private ownership and free markets should govern economies

capitation

numbering of individuals; head tax

capitulary

of, like or pertaining to a chapter of an organization

capnomancy

divination by means of smoke

caponier

covered passage across a moat or ditch

capreolate

having or resembling tentacles

capric

having a goatlike smell; of, like or pertaining to goats

caprifoliaceous

of, like or pertaining to the honeysuckle plant

caprine

of, like or pertaining to goats

capriole

leap and kick performed by a trained horse

capruncle

earthen vessel

capstan

upright device for winding in heavy ropes or cables

captation

attempt to obtain applause or recognition

captious

peevish; ready to take offence or find fault

capuchin

pointed hooded cloak worn by friars

capybara

tailless aquatic rodent of South America

caracal

long-legged nocturnal cat of African and Asian savannahs with long ears

caracara

long-legged South American falcon

caracole

spiral staircase; a half turn by a trained horse

caravanserai

inn or rest station for caravans

carboniferous

bearing carbon

carboy

large green bottle encased in wicker

carbuncle

architectural monstrosity or eyesore; red precious stone

carcanet

ornamental necklace, collar or headband

carceral

of, like or pertaining to prisons

carcinology

study of crabs and other crustaceans

cardimelech

supposed vital force causing heart to work

cardinal

deep scarlet red colour

cardinalitial

of, like or pertaining to church cardinals

cardiognost

one who knows the workings of the heart

cardiograph

instrument for recording movements of the heart

cardophagus

donkey; something that eats thistles

careen

to turn a ship on its side in order to clean or repair it

caret

mark used to note an omission

carfax

carferal

compound of carbon, iron and aluminum

caricology

study of sedges

caricous

of, like or pertaining to figs

carillon

set of bells of different sizes

carinated

shaped like the prow or keel of a ship

cariniform

keel-shaped

carioca

variation of the samba

cariogenic

causing dental cavities

cariole

light open carriage

carious

of, like or pertaining to dental cavities; decayed

caritative

generous; charitable

caritive

indicating lack of something

carking

imposing great hardship or strain

carminative

expelling, causing or relieving flatulence

carnaptious

bad-tempered; cantankerous

carnassial

specially adapted for eating flesh

carneous

fleshy; flesh-coloured; like or pertaining to flesh

carnet

customs or other permit; book of coupons

carniferous

bearing flesh; fleshy

carnification

conversion into flesh

carnificial

of, like or pertaining to butchers or executioners

carnificine

place of execution; office of the executioner

carnose

fleshy; of or like flesh

caroche

stately carriage used on ceremonial occasions

carpal

of, like or pertaining to the wrist

carphology

fitful plucking movements as in delirium

carpogenous

producing or bearing fruit

carpology

study of fruit

carpophagous

fruit-eating

carriwitchet

a quip or quibble; a pun; a conundrum

carronade

short and light maritime cannon

cartiliginous

like or composed of cartilage

cartomancy

telling fortunes using playing cards

cartophily

the hobby of collecting cigarette cards

cartouche

oval- or scroll-shaped ornamentation on monument or tomb

cartulary

keeper of monastic records

carucate

as much land as a team of oxen ploughs in a season

caruncle

any fleshy growth on the body

caryatid

column shaped like female figure

cascabel

part behind the base-ring of a cannon

caschrom

spade with bent handle for tilling soil

casefy

to become or make cheese-like

casemate

bombproof chamber or armored compartment

casern

barrack or billet for soldiers

cashmere

soft twilled fabric made of fine goat’s wool

cashmerette

soft imitation of cashmere

casquet

light open-faced helmet

casquetel

light steel helmet with no visor

cassation

annulment; overthrow of legal decision

cassideous

helmet-shaped

cassimere

closely woven twilled cloth of fine wool

cassock

close-fitting ankle-length clergyman’s garment

cassowary

large flightless Melanesian bird

castaneous

chestnut-coloured

castellan

governor of castle or fortification

castellar

of, like or pertaining to a castle

castellated

having battlements or turrets

castophrenia

belief that one’s thoughts are being stolen

castory

brown colour; brown dye derived from beaver pelts

castral

of or belonging to the camp

castrametation

the art of designing a camp

casualism

the belief that chance governs all things

casuistry

plausible but flawed moral reasoning

catabaptism

belief in the wrongness of infant baptism

catabasis

the decline of a disease in a population

catachresis

incorrect usage of a word

catachthonian

underground; subterranean

cataclasm

disruption; breaking down

catacoustics

science of echoes or reflected sounds

catadioptric

employing both reflection and refraction of light

catadromous

migrating from fresh to salt water to spawn

catafalque

temporary tomb used in funerals and processions

catalactic

of, like or pertaining to exchange

catalactics

science of commercial exchange

catalectic

incomplete; missing final syllable

catamite

boy kept for homosexual purposes

catamount

any wild species of mountain lion or large cat

catapedamania

obsession with jumping from high places

cataphract

suit of mail; soldier in full armour; armoured ship

cataphysical

unnatural

cataplasm

plaster or poultice

cataplexy

condition feigning death used by animals

catarolysis

letting off steam by cursing

catarrhine

of, like or pertaining to Old World Monkeys

catasta

scaffold or stage for torture or selling slaves

catastaltic

astringent

catastasis

introductory part of speech where narrator introduces subject

catastasis

part of drama with highest action; climax

catastrophism

belief in rapid geological and biological change

catchpole

constable; sheriff’s officer

catechectics

the art of teaching by question and answer

catechumen

one undergoing instruction prior to conversion to Christianity

catena

series, chain or sequence

catenarian

of, like or pertaining to chains

catenate

to connect as in or by a chain

cateran

a Scottish military irregular or brigand

cathead

projection near the bow of a ship to which anchor is secured

cathedra

chair or throne of office for a bishop or other high official

cathetometer

instrument for measuring short vertical distances

cathexis

investment of emotional energy in a thought or idea

cathisma

short hymn used as response

cathisophobia

fear of sitting

catholicon

cure-all; panacea

catholicos

primate of Armenian or Nestorian church

catogenic

formed from above

catoptric

of, like or pertaining to reflection or reflected light

catoptromancy

divination by examining mirror placed underwater

caudal

of, like or pertaining to the tail

caudiform

tail-like; tail-shaped

caudle

warm drink given to the sick

caul

net or similar covering for the head; afterbirth

cauliform

shaped like or resembling a stem

cauligenous

originating on the stem of a plant

caulotaxy

disposition and location of branches on a stem

cauponate

to engage in questionable trade for the sake of gain

causative

indicating causation by

causerie

chat or gossip; short and informal essay

causidical

of, like or pertaining to those who plead legal cases

causimancy

divination by means of fire

cautelous

treacherous; cunning; wily; cautious

cavaquinho

four-stringed Brazilian ukulele

cavatina

short operatic air

cavernicolous

cave-dwelling

caverniloquy

cavernous voice of a patient heard over a patient’s lung cavity

cavernulous

full of small cavities or holes

cavesson

noseband for a horse

cavicorn

hollow-horned

cavil

to raise trivial and frivolous objections

cebocephalic

having a head shaped like a monkey’s

cecils

minced meat made into balls and fried

cecutiency

a tendency toward blindness

cedilla

mark placed under letter c to indicate pronunciation as s

ceilometer

instrument for measuring height of cloud ceiling above earth

celadon

pale green; pale green glazed pottery

celesta

keyboard instrument with hammers that strike on steel plates

celidography

descriptions of markings on the sun, a planet or moon

cella

inner chamber of a classical temple

cellarer

monastery official in charge of provisions

cellaret

case or drawer for holding wine bottles

celliferous

bearing cells

celluliferous

bearing little cells

celt

prehistoric bevelled-edge axe

celtuce

lettuce with an edible stalk

cementatory

having the quality of binding or uniting firmly

cementum

hard tissue covering roots of teeth

cenacle

meeting or dining room; group with common interests

cenacle

room where the Last Supper was eaten

cenatory

of, like or pertaining to supper

cendal

silk fabric resembling taffeta

ceneromancy

divination using ashes

cenobite

monk; member of religious group

cenoby

monastery or convent

cenophobia

fear of empty spaces

cenote

deep natural well

censer

vessel for burning incense in religious rituals

centesimal

counting or counted by hundreds or hundredths

centiloquy

work consisting of one hundred aphorisms, attributed to Ptolemy

centner

old unit of weight equal to about 110 pounds

cento

patchwork composition; collection of short quotations

centrobaric

of, like or pertaining to the centre of gravity

cep

brown edible mushroom

cepaceous

smelling or tasting of garlic or onion

cephalate

having a head

cephaligation

placing of major organs and bodily functions in the head

cephalonomancy

divination by boiling an ass head

cephalophore

decapitated saint depicted with head tucked under arm

cephalopod

creature with tentacles or limbs attached to head

cepivorous

onion-eating

ceraceous

resembling wax

ceramography

historical description of types of pottery

cerated

covered with wax

ceratoid

shaped like a horn; horny

ceraunograph

instrument for recording thunder and lightning

ceraunomancy

divination using thunderbolts

ceraunoscopy

divination using lightning

cerberic

vigilant; dragon-like; like Cerberus

cercopithecan

of, like or pertaining to long-tailed monkeys

cercus

tail-like appendage

cerebration

unconscious action of the brain

cerements

clothes placed on a deceased individual

cerge

large wax candle burned before the altar

ceriferous

producing wax

cerise

bright reddish-pink

cernuous

drooping or hanging

cerography

writing or printing on plates spread with wax

ceromancy

divination by means of wax drippings

ceroscopy

divination using wax

certes

in truth; certainly

cerulean

sky-blue; dark blue

ceruminiferous

bearing or yielding ear wax

cervelat

short bassoon-like instrument

cervelat

smoked pork sausage

cervelliere

steel cap worn under a great helm

cervicide

killing of a deer

cervicorn

branching like antlers

cervine

of, pertaining to or resembling deer, elk or moose

cervisial

of, like or pertaining or pertaining to beer

cespitous

composed of or resembling turf

cessionary

someone to which something is ceded

cetacean

type of aquatic mammal, including whales and dolphins

cete

collective name for a group of badgers

ceticide

killing of whales and other cetaceans

cetology

study of whales and dolphins

cevesaile

ornamental corner of a coat

chaconne

Spanish baroque dance in triple time

chad

bits of paper punched out of paper tape or cards

chaetiferous

bearing bristles; bristly

chaetophorous

in need of a shave

chaffer

to bargain or haggle

chain

unit of length equal to 22 yards

chaise

light open carriage for one or two people

chalcography

the art of engraving on copper or brass

chalcotriptics

art of taking rubbings from ornamental brasses

chaldron

old unit of dry volume equal to between 32 and 72 bushels

challis

soft lightweight silk, wool or cotton fabric

chalypsography

art of engraving on steel

chambranle

decoration around a door frame or fireplace

chambray

lightweight fabric with coloured warp and white filling

chambré

wine kept at room temperature

chamfer

to channel or make furrows upon; to bevel

chamfrain

piece of leather to protect a war horse’s face

chamois

cotton fabric made in imitation of chamois leather

chamois

goatlike antelope of mountainous regions of Europe

champaign

level countryside or plain

champerty

illegal contract to finance a lawsuit for a percentage fee

chancel

part of church containing altar and seats for choir

chancery

church office dealing with legal matters and archives

chandelle

sharp upward turn in aviation

chantage

blackmail to prevent exposure of scandalous facts

chanter

part of bagpipes on which the melody is played

chantry

chapel or altar built for prayers for its benefactor’s soul

chaology

the study of chaos or chaos theory

chaomancy

divination by examining phenomena of the air

chapbook

small independently produced popular book

chaplet

chaptalize

to add extra sugar to wine to raise alcohol content

charabanc

open tourist coach

characterology

study of development of character

charientism

expression of an unpleasant thing in an agreeable manner; euphemism

charivari

cacophonous mock-serenade performed for wedding

chark

to burn wood to charcoal

Charleston

fast-paced 1920s dance characterized by energetic kicking

charmante

silk fabric with a crepe back

charmeuse

soft and satiny silk fabric

charnel

room where corpses are placed

charnel

hinge of a helmet for the visor

charpie

shredded lint used to dress wounds

charterhouse

Carthusian monastic building

chartreuse

yellow-green colour

chary

discreetly cautious or sparing

chasmogamy

opening of a flower in order to be fertilized

chasmophile

lover of nooks and crannies

chasmophilous

fond of nooks, crevices and crannies

chasseur

hunter; liveried hotel attendant

chasuble

sleeveless ecclesiastical garment

chatelaine

female castle owner, manager or caretaker

chatelaine

ring attached to belt for carrying keys

chaton

setting or stone of a finger-ring

chatoyant

with a changing lustre; iridescent

chauffer

small furnace

chausses

mail coverings for the lower legs and feet

chaussures

general name for boots and shoes; footwear

cheiloplasty

plastic surgery on the lip

cheiloproclitic

attracted to lips

cheliferous

bearing pincers or claws

cheliform

shaped like a pincer

chelonian

of, like or pertaining to tortoises or turtles

chenille

velvety silk, wool or cotton fabric with protruding pile

chernozem

black earth typically found in cool grassland climates

chevalet

bridge of a stringed instrument

chevaster

double bandage for supporting chin in case of broken jaw

chevelure

nebulous part of a comet

cheverel

soft; flexible kidskin leather

chevet

east end of a church

cheville

unnecessary word used to extend line of verse

cheviot

coarse heavy plain or twilled wool or worsted

chevisance

resource; achievement; gain

chevrotain

small deer-like mammal

chevrotain

small cloven-footed deerlike animal of southeast Asia

chiaroscuro

juxtaposition of light and shade in artwork or literature

chiasmus

contrast by parallelism in reverse order

chicanery

clever but misleading talk; deception

chiffon

sheer silk fabric

chiffonier

chest of drawers

chignon

knot or roll of hair worn at the back of the head

chilgoza

edible pine seed

chiliahedron

one-thousand sided solid figure

chiliarchy

government by one thousand people

chiliasm

belief that Jesus will reign on Earth for a thousand years

chiliastic

millenarian

chiliomb

sacrifice of one thousand animals

chilopod

multi-legged insect

chimere

loose sleeveless robes worn by Anglican bishops

chimerical

imaginary; fanciful

chiminage

toll paid for going through a forest

chinamania

obsession with collecting china

chine

backbone and adjoining flesh of an animal

chine

the intersection of the middle and sides of a boat

chino

strong twilled cotton cloth

chintz

glazed printed cotton fabric

chionablepsia

snow blindness

chiral

of, like or pertaining to the hand or handedness

chirality

chemical property of structural handedness

chirm

collective term for goldfinches

chirocosmetics

beautifying the hands; art of manicure

chirocracy

government by physical force

chirognomy

divination by studying the hands

chirograph

written or signed document

chirography

study of handwriting or penmanship

chirogymnast

finger exercise machine for pianists

chirology

study of the hands

chiromancy

divination by means of palmistry

chironomy

gesticulation or mime

chiropody

medical science of feet

chiropractic

treatment of disorders of the locomotor system and spinal column

chiropterophilous

pollinated or frequented by bats

chirosophy

knowledge of palm-reading

chirospasm

writer’s cramp

chirotony

election by a show of hands

chiru

straight-horned Tibetan antelope

chital

Indian spotted deer

chitarrone

long double-necked lute

chlamydate

having a mantle or hood

chlamys

horseman’s loose cloak

chlorochrous

green-coloured

chlorometer

instrument for measuring amount of chlorine in a solution

choanoid

shaped like a funnel

chock

metal casting with curved arms for passing ropes for mooring ship

choga

loose Afghan dressing-gown

cholelithiasis

production of gall stones

choliamb

verse with an iambus in the fifth place and a spondee in the sixth

cholic

of, like or pertaining to bile

chômage

work stoppage or slump

chondrogenesis

production of cartilage

chondroid

like or resembling cartilage

choragus

leader of a choir or organizer of musical festivals

chordee

painful, downward-curving erection of the penis

choreomania

dancing mania or frenzy

chorepiscopal

of, like or pertaining to an early local bishop

choreutic

of, like or pertaining to a chorus

chorisis

multiplication of parts by branching or splitting

chorizont

one who disputes identity of authorship

chorographer

one who maps or describes a region

chorography

written work or treatise on a region or district

chorology

science of the geographic description of anything

chorometry

land surveying

chouse

to cheat; to swindle

chrematistic

of, like or pertaining to the pursuit of wealth or to business

chrematistics

the study of wealth; political economy

chrematophobia

fear of money

chreotechnics

useful or practical trades or arts

chrestomathic

of, like or pertaining to useful knowledge

chrestomathy

anthology of passages used in learning languages

chrism

consecrated or holy oil

chrismation

sacrament of baptism in Eastern churches

chrismatory

vessel for holding holy oil

chrisom

white robe put on newly baptised child

chrisomalis

the loser who wrote this damn list

Christolatry

worship of Christ

christophany

appearance of Christ to men

chromatism

presence of abnormal coloration

chromatocracy

government by rulers of a particular skin colour

chromatograph

instrument for performing chromatographic separations

chromatoptometer

instrument measuring eyes’ sensitivity to colour

chromolithography

art of printing in colour using stone

chromophilous

staining easily

chromoxylography

art of printing in colour using wood

chronobiology

study of biological rhythms

chronogram

inscription whose letters form a Roman numeral date

chronograph

instrument for recording the moment of an event

chronography

writing or written work describing chronological events

chronomancy

divination by means of time

chronopher

electrical instrument for transmitting time signals

chronoscope

instrument for measuring very short time intervals

chronostichon

chronogrammatic line or stanza

chronosynchronicity

presentation of all stages of a person’s life in a single piece of art

chryselephantine

inlaid with gold and ivory

chrysoaristocracy

government by the wealthy; plutocracy

chrysochlorous

greenish-gold

chrysocracy

government by the wealthy; plutocracy

chrysography

writing in gold or silver letters

chrysology

study of precious metals

chrysophilist

gold-lover

chrysopoetics

transmutation of substances into gold

chrystocrene

rock formation resembling glacier

chthonian

of, like or pertaining to the earth or the underworld

chthonography

written description of soils

chthonophagia

eating dirt

chuckwalla

herbivorous desert-dwelling lizard

churching

church ceremony given to women after childbirth

churchism

devotion to church rules over religious precepts

chyle

milky fluid secreted into blood by small intestine

chyliferous

bearing chyle

chyme

partially digested food

chymiferous

bearing chyme

chypre

mixture of resins used in making perfume

cibarious

of, like or pertaining to food; useful for food

cibation

taking food; feeding

cibophobia

fear of or distaste for food

ciborium

freestanding canopy to cover altar; vessel for holding eucharistic bread

cicatrization

scarification; production of marks upon

cicerone

guide; tour guide

cicisbeo

male companion of a married woman

ciconine

of, like or pertaining to storks

cilice

haircloth shirt worn as penance

cillosis

spasm or twitch in the upper eyelid

cimelia

treasures in storage

cimeliarch

church vestry or treasury

cimicide

substance used to kill bed-bugs

cimier

crest of helmet; removable heraldic device or favour of courtly love

cincture

to gird or surround; belt worn around ecclesiastical vestment

cineast

one who takes artistic interest in motion pictures

cinerarium

container for cremated ashes

cinerary

of, like or pertaining to ashes

cinerious

ashen; ash-grey

cingular

shaped like a girdle or ring

cingulum

girdle or girdle-like structure; priest’s belt

cinnabar

red crystalline mercuric sulfide pigment; deep red or scarlet colour

cinque-pace

lively medieval dance with five steps

ciplinarian

one who teaches disorder

cipolin

white marble streaked with green

cippus

small column used to mark burial location

circadian

occurring every 24 hours

circinate

ring-shaped; rolled inwards; spiralling

circuity

motion in a roundabout course

circumambagious

roundabout in speech

circumambient

going round about; encompassing

circumaviate

to fly around

circumbendibus

a roundabout way or expression

circumcrescent

growing around; above or over

circumduct

to cause to revolve around an imaginary axis

circumflex

accent mark placed above vowel to indicate sound change

circumforaneous

wandering about as from market to market

circumforentor

surveyor’s instrument used to measure angles

circumfulgent

shining about or around

circumfuse

to pour around or about

circumincession

the reciprocal existence of three parts of the Trinity in each other

circumjacent

bordering on every side

circumlittoral

around or near the shore

circumpose

to place around

circumvallate

to surround with a rampart or fortification

circumvolution

anything winding or sinuous

cire

fabric with a glazed finish

cirrate

having tendrils

cirriped

barnacle or other parasitic crustacean

ciselure

the art of chasing metal

cismarine

on this or the near side of the ocean

cismontane

on this or the near side of the mountains

cispontine

on this or the near side of a bridge

cist

tomb consisting of stone chest covered with stone slabs

cisvestism

wearing strange or inappropriate clothes

cithara

ancient Greek musical instrument like a lyre

citigrade

moving quickly

citreous

lemon-coloured; lemony

citrine

dark greenish-yellow

cittosis

abnormal desire for strange foods

civet

long-tailed catlike carnivorous mammal with musk glands

cladistics

taxonomic theory distinguishing by common ancestor

cladogenesis

origin and evolution as if branching from common ancestor

cladoptosis

annual shedding of twigs and branches

cladose

branching; branched

clamant

loud; insistent; urgent

clangor

loud ringing noise or clang

claptrap

showy language designed to gain praise; nonsense

claque

group of hired applauders or sycophants

clarence

four-wheeled carriage

clarigate

to declare war formally

classis

a group; governing body of Reformed churches

clastic

able to be disassembled into its component parts

clatfart

idle chatter; nonsense

clathrate

shaped like a net or lattice

clathrose

marked with latticed lines or grooves

claudent

closing; ending; confining

claudication

limpness; cramp-like pain

claustral

cloistral; secluded; narrow-minded

claustration

the act of shutting in a cloister

claustrophobia

fear of closed spaces

clavichord

old keyboard stringed instrument

clavicylinder

square keyboard instrument whose sound produced from a glass cylinder

clavicymbal

old name for a harpsichord

claviform

in the shape of a club

clavigerous

club-bearing

clavigerous

keeping keys

claviole

keyed string instrument

clavis

key; glossary; index; legend

cledonism

circumlocution used to avoid speaking unlucky words

cleidomancy

divination using keys

cleithral

completely roofed over

clepsydra

instrument which measures time by trickling water

clerestory

upper storey of a church; windows near the roof of a building

clerihew

jingle summing up person’s life in two couplets

clerisy

scholars and educated people as a class

cleromancy

divination using dice

cleronomy

inheritance

clevis

U-shaped fastener with pin used to close the open end

clew

corner of sail with hole to attach ropes

clientage

the whole number of one’s clients

climacophobia

fear of falling down stairs

climacteric

critical time in a person’s life; any critical turning point

climatarchic

presiding over a climate or region of the earth

climatography

description of the climate of a region

clinamen

inclination; bias; prejudice

clinkstone

type of igneous rock that rings when struck

clinology

study of aging or individual decline after maturity

clinomania

excessive desire to stay in bed

clinometer

instrument used to measure slopes and elevations

clinophilia

passion for beds

clinophobia

fear of staying in bed

clinquant

tinselly; glittering

cliometrics

the application of statistics in economic history

clitellum

raised band encircling an earthworm’s body

clithridiate

shaped like a keyhole

clitter

to make a shrill rattling noise

cloaca

sewer; toilet; cesspool of moral filth

clochard

tramp; vagrant; hobo

cloison

partition; dividing band

clonic

spasmodic; occasional; irregular

cloque

fabric with an embossed design

cloture

means of ending legislative debate

clou

main point of interest; dominant idea

clough

ravine; trench; gully

clove

old weight of seven to ten pounds for wool or cheese

clowder

collective term for cats

clupeoid

like or resembling a herring

clypeate

shaped like a buckler

clysmian

of, like or pertaining to or caused by flood

cnemial

of, like, or pertaining to the tibia (shin-bone)

cnicnode

point where tangents form a cone of the second order

cnidarian

of, like, or pertaining to invertebrates such as jellyfish and anemones

coacervate

to heap; to cause to mass together

coadjument

mutual assistance

coadjutor

bishop assisting a diocesan bishop and having the right of succession

coadunate

to unite; to combine

coagment

to join or cement together

coalize

to bring into coalition

coaming

raised edge around ship’s hatches to keep water out

coaptation

joining or fitting together

coarctation

constriction

cobaltiferous

bearing cobalt

coburg

thin single-twilled worsted fabric with cotton or silk

cocarde

emblem on airplane’s wing indicating its nationality

cocciferous

bearing or yielding berries

cochlear

anything spiral-shaped; twisted spirally

cockalorum

boastful and self-important person

cockamamie

ridiculous; incredible

cocker

to pamper; to indulge

cocket

official shipping seal; customs clearance form

cockloft

small room just under the roof

cockshy

object of criticism or ridicule

cocotte

prostitute; a flirt or tease

coctile

baked; hardened by fire

codicil

supplement to a will

codicology

study of manuscripts

codon

mouth of a trumpet or bell

codswallop

something utterly senseless; nonsense

coehorn

small mortar for throwing grenades

coelacanth

lobe-finned fish long thought to be extinct

coeliac

of, like or pertaining to the abdomen

coelom

body cavity; abdomen

coemption

purchase of the entire supply of a commodity

coenaculous

fond of dining; relishing food; especially suppers

coenaesthesis

sensation

coercimeter

instrument for measuring coercive force

coetaneous

of the same age; coeval

coeval

of the same length of time; having the same duration

cofferdam

coffle

gang of slaves tied together

coffret

small coffer; presentation box

cog

single-masted, square-sailed ship with raised stern

cogent

convincing; compelling

cogitabund

meditative; engaged in deep thought

cohyponym

word which is one of multiple hyponyms of another word

coinstantaneous

simultaneous; at the same time

col

depression or pass in a mountain range

coleopterology

study of beetles and weevils

coliform

resembling or shaped like a sieve

collectanea

collection of passages; miscellany

collectic

adhesive; sticky

collectivism

doctrine of communal control of means of production

collegialism

theory that church is independent from the state

colliform

shaped like or resembling a neck

colligation

bringing or binding together; conjunction

collimation

making parallel; adjusting to put into line

colliquation

the process of melting or wasting away

collocation

the placing of things together

collogue

to converse confidentially; to conspire with

colloquy

speaking together; mutual discourse

colluctation

strife; opposition

colluvies

accumulated filth; foul discharge

collyrium

eye lotion or ointment

colobus

long-tailed African monkey

colocolo

wild South American cat

colonnade

row of evenly spaced column or trees

colonoscope

instrument for viewing the colon

colophon

publisher’s emblem or inscription in a book

colorimeter

instrument for measuring and determining color

colostrum

mother’s first milk

colporteur

peddler of religious tracts and books

colposcope

instrument for viewing the neck of the uterus

colubriform

shaped like a snake

colubrine

like a snake; cunning; of, like or pertaining to snakes

columbaceous

of, like or pertaining to doves or pigeons

columbarium

a structure of vaults lined with recesses

columbine

of or like a dove; dove-coloured

columella

fleshy part of nose that separates nostrils

colure

celestial circle that intersects another at the poles

colytic

restraining; preventative

comb

ridge atop a helmet

comburent

burning; causing combustion

comburivorous

consuming by fire

comedogenic

comephorous

bearing or having hair; hairy

cometography

scientific description of comets

cometology

study of comets

comitative

indicating accompaniment

comitatus

band of warriors who escort a prince; a county or shire

comity

courteousness; civility

commatic

divided into short lines; divided with commas

commination

threatening; denunciation

comminute

to reduce or break into minute particles

commis

assistant; deputy; apprentice

commissure

joint; joining surface

commonalty

common people; the general populace

commonefaction

act of reminding or admonishing

commonition

warning; cautioning

commonitive

serving as a reminder

commorant

resident of an institution

commorient

dying together

commove

to excite; to put into motion; to disturb

comose

having tufts of hair; tufted; hairy

compaginate

to join; to connect

companionway

stairs from upper deck of ship to lower deck

compaternity

spiritual relationship between child’s parents and godparents

compeer

one who is equal in rank; a companion

compellation

the act of addressing someone

compellative

indicating address or appellation; vocative

compendious

concise but comprehensive

comper

one who habitually enters many competitions

comperendinate

to delay or defer

compital

complaisant

wishing to please others; obliging

complect

to embrace; to interweave

complicant

overlapping

compline

prayer service held just before bedtime

complot

to plot or conspire

comport

a dish with a stemmed base for serving desserts

compossible

possible in coexistence with something else

compotation

an act of carousing in company

comprecation

prayer meeting

compunction

regret; remorse

compurgation

clearing an accused person by means of oaths

compusion

wrinkling one’s face

comstockery

censorship of lewd and salacious material

conation

mental effort towards a goal, desire, purpose

conative

of, like or pertaining to purposeful action or desire

conatus

a natural impulse or tendency

concameration

vaulting

concelebrate

to jointly recite the canon of the Eucharist in unison with others

concent

a harmony or concord of sounds or voices

conceptualism

theory that universal truths exist as mental concepts

concertina

accordion-like instrument with two sets of keys

concetto

ingenious expression; witticism

conchiferous

bearing a shell

conchiform

shaped like a shell

conchology

study of shells

conchomancy

divination using shells

conchyliferous

bearing a shell

conciliabule

secret meeting of conspirators

concinnity

harmony; congruity; elegance

concipient

conceiving

concision

schism; separation; division

conclamation

a shout of many voices together

concolorate

having the same colour on both sides

concomitant

accompanying

concordat

agreement between the pope and a secular government

concresce

to grow together; coalesce

concrew

to grow together

concubitant

of a suitable age for marriage

concupiscence

strong desire, appetite or lust

condign

well-deserved; fitting; appropriate

confabulate

to chat; to invent past experiences

confelicitous

taking pleasure in others’ happiness

conferva

green algae that floats on surface of stagnant water

confirmand

candidate for religious confirmation

confiteor

prayer of confession of sins

conflate

blend or fuse together

conformative

indicating resemblance; similative

confute

to disprove or overcome through argument

congee

permission to depart; dismissal; discharge

congelation

act of freezing something into a solid state

congener

something of the same kind or nature

congeries

aggregation; collection

congiary

gift distributed amongst the people or soldiers

conglobate

shaped like a small ball or globe

conglobe

to gather together into a globe or round mass

conglutinate

to glue or join together

coniaker

coin counterfeiter

coniferous

bearing cones

conification

making conical or pyramidal in shape

connate

congenitally or firmly united

connubial

of, like or pertaining to marriage

connumerate

to count together

consciuncle

pedantic or hair-splitting conscience

consectary

deduction; conclusion or corollary; consequent

consecution

logical sequence or progression of an argument

consenescence

state of general decay

consentaneous

accordant or agreeable; consistent

consentient

unanimous; of one accord

consequentialism

doctrine that morality of actions is determined by their consequences

consilience

concurrence; coincidence

consilient

having common inferences drawn from different premises

consistory

a solemn assembly or council; a church tribunal

consociate

to ally or associate

conspecies

different species that are part of the same genus

conspectus

comprehensive survey; synopsis; summary

conspue

to despise; to abhor; to loathe

conspurcation

defilement

constative

capable of being true or false

constellate

to cluster; to compel by stellar influence

constringe

to draw together; to cause to contract or shrink

constructivism

belief that knowledge and reality do not have an objective value

consuetude

custom; familiarity

consuetudinary

book of customs, traditions and principles

consultor

contabescent

wasting away; atrophied

contect

to cover or overlay

contemn

to despise or scorn

contemnor

one found guilty of contempt of court

contemper

to blend together; to adapt

contenement

property necessary to maintain one’s station

contesseration

forming a union by breaking a tablet as token

contextualism

doctrine that context is essential to establishing meaning

contignation

joining together of timber

contline

space between casks or strands of rope

contorniate

having a groove around the edge

contorno

contour or outline

contractile

having the power or property of contracting

contradistinguish

to distinguish by contrasting qualities

contrahent

a contracting party

contrail

condensation trail

contranatant

swimming upstream

contraplex

having messages passing both ways simultaneously

contraposition

opposition; contrast

contrariant

opposed or acting contrary to; one who is opposed to something

contraterrene

opposite in character to earthly or terrestrial

contravallation

fortification built around besieged place

contredanse

folk dance in which two lines of couples face each other

contretemps

embarrassing occurrence; mishap

contriturate

to pulverize

contubernal

living together in the same tent; cohabiting

contumacious

stubborn; obstinate; opposing lawful authority

contumely

insolence; a scornful insult

contumulation

lying in the same tomb as another

conurbation

city surrounded by many urban areas

conure

tropical parrot-like bird of Central and South America

convenances

what is suitable or proper; the required proprieties

conventicle

secret or illegal church assembly

convicinity

neighbourhood

convolve

to roll together

copacetic

very satisfactory; fine

coparcenary

joint heirship or ownership

coprolalia

pathological use of obscene language

coprolith

ball of hardened feces

coprology

study of pornography

copromania

obsession with feces

coprophagous

eating feces

coprophemia

obscene language

coprophilia

abnormal love or fondness for feces

coprostatis

constipation

copyhold

land tenure dependent on will of the lord of the manor

coquelicot

brilliant red; poppy red

coquicide

killing of a cook

coquillage

shell-like decoration

coracoid

shaped like a crow’s beak

coralliferous

bearing coral

coralligenous

producing coral

coram

in the presence of; before

corban

offering to God in fulfilment of a vow

corbeau

blackish green

corbeil

basket filled with earth used as a missile

corbel

bracket or projection from the face of a wall

corbiculate

like a small basket

cordage

ropes in the rigging of a ship

cordiform

heart-shaped

cordovan

soft goatskin leather

corf

miner’s basket, trolley or wagon

coriaceous

having a leathery appearance; consisting, of, like or pertaining to leather

corm

swollen subterranean part of a stem

cornet

military rank of horn-bearer or standard-bearer

cornice

moulding at the junction of ceiling and walls

corniculate

horn-shaped; horned

cornific

producing or forming horns

corniform

shaped like a horn

coronach

funeral dirge

coronagraph

instrument for viewing the corona of the sun

coronoid

shaped like a beak

corpocracy

government by corporate bureaucrats

corporal

white cloth on which Communion bread and wine are placed

corposant

St. Elmo’s fire or similar electrical discharge

corrade

to wear away through the action of loose solids

correption

shortening in pronunciation

corrigendum

something which requires correction

corrivate

to cause to flow together

corrody

right of lord to demand free lodging from vassal

corsetier

corset maker

corslet

armour for the torso

cortege

train of attendants; procession

cortinate

like a cobweb

coruscate

to sparkle; to throw off flashes of light

corvette

highly manoeuvrable armed escort ship

corviform

shaped like a crow

corvine

crow-like; of, like or pertaining to crows or ravens

corybantic

wildly excited; frenzied

coryphaeus

spokesman; leader of a chorus

coscinomancy

divination using a sieve and a pair of shears

cosher

to live on dependents

cosmarchy

rulership over the entire world, esp. by the devil

cosmetology

study of cosmetics

cosmism

belief that the cosmos is a self-existing whole

cosmocrat

ruler of the world

cosmogenic

produced by interaction of cosmic rays with earth’s surface

cosmogony

theory of the origin of the universe

cosmography

description of the universe or cosmos

cosmolatry

worship of the world

cosmoplastic

moulding or shaping the universe

cosmorama

a view of different parts of the world

cosmosophy

knowledge of the cosmos

cosmotellurian

of, like or pertaining to both heaven and earth

cosmotheism

the belief that identifies God with the cosmos

cosset

to fondle or pamper

costal

of, like or pertaining to the ribs

costive

affected with or causing constipation

coteau

uplands; higher ground of a region

cotehardie

medieval long close-fitting garment with tight sleeves

coterie

a social or literary circle

cothurnal

of, like or pertaining to tragedy

coticular

of, like or pertaining to whetstones

cotillion

elaborate ballroom dance with frequent changes of partner

cotquean

man who does women’s work

cotta

short surplice worn over a cassock

cottar

medieval peasant inhabiting a cottage

cottonocracy

government by those involved in the cotton trade

cotyliform

disc-shaped with a raised rim

couchant

in heraldry, an animal lying on its belly with head lifted

couchee

evening reception

coulée

steep and dry gully

coulombmeter

instrument for measuring electric charge

coulometer

instrument measuring amount of substance released in electrolysis

coulrophobia

fear of clowns

coulter

iron cutter in front of a ploughshare

countenance

approve of; condone; encourage

counterblast

a defiant pronouncement or denunciation

counterfoil

part of ticket or cheque retained by giver

countermand

to revoke an order by a contrary order

counterphobic

seeking out situation that is feared

counterscarp

narrow earth band on the outer wall of a defensive ditch

coupe

four-wheeled closed horse-drawn carriage

courante

quick Italian baroque dance involving running steps

couter

armor for the elbow

couvade

symptoms of pregnancy suffered by the father

couveuse

incubator for babies

cowcat

person whose function is to occupy space

coxcomb

foolishly vain or conceited man

coypu

large aquatic South American rodent

cozen

to coax or deceive by trickery

crackjaw

hard to pronounce

crambo

game in which rhyme must be found for given word

crampon

boot-spike for rock and ice climbing

craniometer

instrument for measuring the skull

crapehanger

pessimist

crapulent

physically ill through overeating or overdrinking

craquelure

fine cracking that appears in old paintings

crash

coarse drapery and towelling fabric

crasis

blending; melding two vowels into a diphthong

crassilingual

having a thick tongue

crassitude

state of being coarse, gross or crass

crateriform

cup-shaped

cratometer

instrument for measuring power of magnification

creancer

guardian or mentor

creant

creating; formative

creatic

of, like or pertaining to flesh

creatophagous

carnivorous; flesh-eating

credal

of, like or pertaining to a creed

credence

small table for holding sacred vessels

credenda

things to be believed

credenza

credence table or shelf; a sideboard

credo

concise statement of doctrine; section of Mass followed by offertory

cremaillere

zigzag line of fortification

cremaster

muscle by which the testicles are suspended

cremnophobia

fear of cliffs and precipices

crenel

open space on a parapet used for launching projectiles at enemies

crenellated

notched; having battlements

crenitic

of, like or pertaining to mineral springs

creophagous

flesh-eating; carnivorous

crepance

sore on a horse’s hind ankle-joint

crepe

light crinkled fabric

crepehanger

pessimist; gloomy person

crepitate

to crackle; to snap; to rattle

crepon

heavy crepe fabric with lengthwise crinkles

crepuscular

of, like or pertaining to twilight

crescive

growing; increasing

crescograph

instrument for measuring the growth of plants

cresset

iron basket for burning oil to provide light

cretaceous

of or resembling chalk; of a whitish colour

cretify

to change into calcium or lime; to fossilize

cretonne

heavy cotton or linen cloth

crewel

fine worsted yarn used in tapestry

criant

garish; discordantly coloured

cribble

to decorate wood or metal with small dots or punctures

cribriform

shaped like a sieve

cribrous

perforated or punctured like a sieve

criminogenic

causing crime

criminology

study of crime; criminals

crinal

of or related to the hair

crinet

armour for the top and sides of a horse’s neck

cringle

loop at corner of sail to which a line is attached

crinoline

stiff flax or cotton fabric

criophore

sculpture of a man carrying a ram

crista

ridge or fold resembling a crest

crithomancy

divination by strewing meal over sacrifices

criticaster

inferior or petty critic

critomancy

divination using viands and cakes

croceate

saffron-coloured

croche

knob at top of a deer’s horn

cromlech

prehistoric stone circle

cromnyomancy

divination using onions

croquinole

curling of one’s hair with curling iron

crosier

pastoral staff or crook held by bishop or abbot

crosslet

small cross with crossed arms used as heraldic bearing

crosstrees

horizontal crosspieces at a masthead used to support ship’s mast

crotal

small spherical bell

crotaline

of, like or pertaining to rattlesnakes

crotchet

square bracket

croze

groove in the staves of a cask

crubeen

term for pig’s feet as food

cruciferous

bearing a cross

cruciform

cross-shaped

cruentation

leaking or oozing of blood from dead body

cruet

vessel used in religious ceremonies, especially to hold the Eucharist

cruive

pen or sty for animals

crupper

strap of saddle that passes beneath horse’s tail; armour for horse’s flanks

crural

of or belonging to the leg

cruset

goldsmith’s crucible

crwth

Welsh six-stringed instrument played with a bow

cryobiology

study of life under cold conditions

cryometer

instrument for measuring low temperatures

cryoscope

instrument for determining freezing points of substances

cryptadia

things to be kept hidden

cryptaesthetic

of, like or pertaining to supranormal perception

cryptarchy

secret rulership

cryptodynamic

having secret or hidden power

cryptogenic

of unknown origin

cryptotype

an implicit and specific rule of language use

cryptous

of, like or pertaining to crypts

crystallogenesis

production of crystals

crystallography

study and classification of crystals

crystallomancy

divination by means of clear objects

crystalomancy

divination using a crystal globe

ctetology

study of the inheritance of acquired characteristics

cubation

act of lying down or reclining

cubica

fine unglazed fabric resembling shalloon

cubiform

shaped like a cube

cubomancy

divination by throwing dice

cuculine

of, like or pertaining to cuckoos

cucullate

hooded; hood-shaped

cucumiform

cucumber-shaped

cucurbit

chemical vessel used in a still or alembic

cucurbitaceous

of, like or pertaining to gourds

cuddy

right of a lord to entertainment from a tenant

cuirass

leather or metal armour consisting of a breastplate and backplate

cuisse

armour for the front of the thighs

culet

flat back or base of a gemstone

culet

armour plates for the body below the waist

culiciform

like or resembling a mosquito

culicino

mark left on a tablecloth by a wet glass

cullet

waste glass which is melted into new objects

cullion

mean or base person; rascal

culm

stem of grass or sedge

culmiferous

bearing coal-dust

cultch

flooring of an oyster-bed; rubbish

cultriform

knife-shaped

cultus

religious ritual; a cult

culverin

lightweight, portal, long-barrelled cannon

culvertage

degradation of a peasant to the position of serf

cumbent

lying down; reclining

cumuliform

shaped like a heap

cumulose

containing or consisting of small heaps

cunctation

delay; procrastination

cuneiform

shaped like a wedge

cuniculous

full of holes and tunnels; full of rabbits

cupel

goldsmith’s vessel for assaying metal

cupola

spherical vault or concave ceiling

cupriferous

bearing copper

cupulate

of, like or pertaining to a cup; cup-shaped

cupuliferous

bearing cupules

curate

assistant to a parish priest

curette

instrument for scraping sides of body cavities

curia

papal court and its officials

curie

unit of radioactive decay and intensity

curiology

picture-writing

curiosa

pornographic books

curlew

long-legged migratory bird with downward-curving bill

curmurring

rumbling or flatulent sound

curricle

two-wheeled open carriage

currycomb

metal comb used to groom horses

cursorial

used in walking or running

curtal

short; abbreviated; curtailed

curtal

kind of archaic bassoon

curtate

shortened; short

curtilage

court or field attached to a dwelling

curule

of high authority

curvicaudate

having a curvy tail

cusec

unit of liquid flow equal to one cubic foot per second

cusk

large Atlantic fish like the cod

custos

guardian, custodian or keeper, especially of convents or monasteries

custrel

attendant to a knight; a knave

cutaneous

of or related to the skin

cuvette

shallow dish for holding liquids

cyanogenesis

production of cyanide

cyanometer

instrument for measuring blueness of the sky or ocean

cyathiform

shaped like a cup

cybernate

to control by means of a computer

cyberphobia

fear of computers

cyclas

garment, longer at back than in front, worn over armour

cyclograph

instrument for describing arcs of circles without compasses

cyclolith

stone circle

cyclometer

instrument for measuring revolutions of a wheel

cyclophoria

squint due to weakness in the eye muscles

cyclostyle

device for making multiple copies of written text

cyesolagnia

sexual attraction to pregnant women

cylix

shallow cup with long stem

cyllosis

congenital physical deformity

cymaphen

telephone receiver

cymar

loose light robe worn by women

cymbiform

shaped like a boat

cymograph

instrument for tracing the outline of mouldings

cymometer

instrument for measuring frequency of electrical waves

cymophanous

opalescent; having a wavy or floating light

cymotrichous

wavy-haired

cynanthropy

pathological belief that one is a dog

cynartomachy

bear-baiting using dogs

cynegetic

of or related to hunting

cynoclept

one who steals dogs

cynography

writing or treatise on dogs

cynolatry

worship of dogs

cynology

scientific study of dogs

cynomorphic

pertaining to a dog’s viewpoint

cynophilist

one who loves dogs

cynophobia

fear of dogs

cynosure

anything that attracts attention; object of interest

cyphonism

use of pillorying as punishment

cypress

silk or cotton gauze fabric, usually black

cyprian

lewd woman; prostitute

cyprinoid

of, like or pertaining to carp

cypseline

of, like or pertaining to swifts

cyrenaic

adherent of doctrine that pleasure is ultimate goal

cystolith

calcium carbonate that masses in cell wall of some plants

cystoscope

instrument for examining the bladder

cytheromania

nymphomania

cytogenesis

formation of cells

cytology

study of living cells

cytometer

instrument for counting cells

czardas

Hungarian dance that increases in speed

40 Clever Words That Begin With The Letter C

The letter C is a modern-day descendent of the Ancient Greek letter gamma, and as such originally represented a “g” sound rather than “k.” The Romans, however, confused everything; they typically used their letter C to represent both “g” and “k” sounds, avoiding the letter K (which was descended from the Greek kappa) almost entirely. Having one letter to represent multiple sounds proved confusing, and so Roman scribes invented a new letter, G, to represent “g,” which freed C to represent the “k” sound. So when the Roman alphabet was introduced to England, C was originally used for all instances of the “k” sound-as in cyng (Old English “king”), sticca (“stick”), lician (“like”), cneow (“knee”), and cniht (“knight”).

Just as things were starting to settle down, along came William the Conqueror. After the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, the English language adopted a number of words from French in which the Latin letter C was now being used to represent a “s” sound, like city, citizen, and circle. Old English speakers were now facing the same problem that the Romans had had, as their letter C was being used for two entirely different sounds. Ultimately, C typically came to be used in all the “s”-sounding words (known as “soft-C”), while the Greek K was rescued from the linguistic scrapheap and began to be used for the “hard-C” words.

This all means that C isn’t used as much today as it was in Old English [ PDF], but you can still expect it to account for around 2.5 percent of a page of written English, and it accounts for 3.5 percent of all the words in a dictionary-including the 40 clever C-words collected and collated here.

1. CABBY-LABBY

Also called a cabby-lab, cabby-labby is an old Scots dialect word for a noisy quarrel or disagreement in which everyone involved is speaking at the same time. Should you ever need to, you can also use cabby-labby as a verb, meaning “to argue” or “to disagree.”

2. CACAFUEGO

Borrowed into English in the 1600s, a cacafuego or is a blustering, swaggering boaster. It literally means “fire-pooper” in Spanish.

3. CACHINNATE

Derived from Latin, cachinnation is loud or raucous laughter, and to cachinnate is to laugh loudly or immoderately. Something that is cachinnatory, incidentally, makes you cachinnate.

4. CACOLOGY

Cacology literally means “evil-speaking,” and is used to refer to a poor choice of words or noticeably bad language. Likewise, a caconym is an ill-fitting or unpleasant name; a cachotechny is a poorly constructed device or work of art; and a cacotype is either a printing error, or a libelously insulting printed description or account.

5. CAIN-COLORED

Because the Cain of Cain and Abel is supposed to have had red hair, Shakespeare coined the term Cain-colored in The Merry Wives of Windsor to describe someone with a fair, reddish-colored beard.

6. CALAMISTRATION

A formal word for the process of curling your hair.

7. CALIDITY

Derived from the same root as calorie, if something is calid then it’s warm, and so calidity is simply another name for warmth or heat. A caliduct is a pipe for conducting hot air or heated water, as in a radiator.

8. CALLOMANIA

Someone who thinks that they’re more beautiful than they really are is a callomaniac. Someone who is calophantic, likewise, pretends to be better than they really are.

9. CAMAIEU

Derived from the French for “cameo,” a is a monochrome work of art, particularly one in which the color used is not one found in whatever is being portrayed (like a black-and-white image of a bright green apple, or a blue-and-white portrait of a person). By extension, the term camaïeu can also be used metaphorically to refer to any dull or predictable literary work.

10. CAPRICORNIFY

Whereas goats themselves have long been considered symbols of lecherousness and libidinousness, goats’ horns are, for some reason, considered a symbol of unfaithfulness and infidelity. One explanation suggests that goats are such proverbially foolish animals that they’re utterly unaware that they even have horns at all-just as the partner of an unfaithful lover is utterly unaware of their other half’s infidelity. Another theory points to the celebratory “horns” given to Roman soldiers returning home from successes on far-flung battlefields-only to find that they’ve been away from home so long that their wives have left them and moved on. Whatever the reason behind it, the association between goats’ horns and unfaithfulness is the origin of the word capricornify, which means “to cheat on your lover,” or, oppositely, “to be cuckolded or cheated on.”

11. CATACHTHONIAN

The adjective chthonian is usually used to mean “pertaining to the Underworld,” but the derived term catachthonian, or catachthonic, is simply another word for “underground” or “subterranean.”

12. CATACUMBAL

If the room you’re in feels like a catacomb, then it’s catacumbal.

13. CATAPHASIS

Cataphasis-a Greek word literally meaning “affirmation”-is a rhetorical device in which someone draws attention to a person’s bad points by ostensibly glossing over them; unlike other rhetorical devices that do the same thing (known as paralipsis), in a cataphasis the speaker makes it abundantly clear that the bad points in question absolutely exist, as in “I’m not going to mention the fact that he got fired for misconduct yesterday …” or, “but let’s not start talking about how she capricornifies everyone she’s ever gone out with …” If you’re the person being alluded to in the cataphasis, of course, you might want to consider responding with a …

14. CATAPLEXIS

… which is another rhetorical term, referring to a speech or pronouncement in which someone threatens revenge.

15. CATCH-FART

So-named because they’re supposed to walk so closely behind the person they admire, a is an ingratiating, toadying sycophant.

16. CATERWISE

Derived from the French number quatre, cater is a 16th century word for the four on a die or in a pack of cards. Derived from that, to cater means to walk or move along a diagonal path, while to position something caterwise or cater-cornered means to place it diagonally.

17. CHABBLE

The is the slight undulation on the surface of the sea, or of a liquid in a large vessel.

18. CHATTER-WATER

An old Yorkshire dialect nickname for weak tea.

19. CHILIAD

The smaller and lesser-known partner of the word myriad is chiliad. So while a myriad is literally a group of 10,000, a chiliad is a group of 1000. A chiliagon, ultimately, is a shape with 1000 sides; a chiliarch is the leader of 1000 men; and a chiliarchy is a government or ruling body formed from 1000 individual members.

20. CHIONABLEPSIA

A medical name for snow-blindness, an affliction of the eyes caused by the reflection of sunlight on snow or ice.

21. CHUMBLE

A 19th century word meaning “to nibble” or “to gnaw.”

22. CIRCUMBENDIBUS

A 17th-century word for a circuitous, long-winded route or way of doing something.

23. CLAMIHEWIT

An 18th-century Scots dialect word for a bitter disappointment, or for a sound thrashing or beating. It’s thought to literally mean “claw-my-head” and oddly is unrelated to …

24. CLAMJAMPHRIE

… which is another old Scots dialect word variously used to mean “a rowdy crowd of people,” “worthless trivialities,” or “complete nonsense.” No one is quite sure where clamjamphrie comes from, but one theory claims that it might once have been a contemptuous nickname for a Highland clan.

25. CLIMB-TACK

Also called a climb-shelf, a is a cat that likes to explore high shelves or hard-to-reach places. Metaphorically, it’s a naughty or mischievous child.

26. CLINOMANIA

Also known as dysania, clinomania is an obsessive desire to stay in bed or a total inability to get up in the morning. It’s etymologically related to …

27. CLINOPHOBIA

… which is the fear of going to bed. Other C-phobias include chromophobia (the fear of brightly-colored things), cheimaphobia (the cold), cryophobia (ice), cyberphobia (computers), cynophobia (dogs), and cneidophobia (insect stings).

28. COCKAPENTIE

Probably derived from cock-a-bendy, an old Scots word for an effeminate or priggish young man, a cockapentie is a man whose pride and shallowness compels him to live far beyond his means.

29. COLDBLOW

An old English dialect word for a freezing cold winter’s day. The wrong kind of day to be …

30. COLDRIFE

… If you’re then you’re susceptible to the cold, although the word can also be used figuratively to mean “spiritless” or “in need of cheering up.”

31. CORN-JUICE

19th century American slang for whisky.

32. COSP

The handle of a spade.

33. COTHROCH

An old dialect word (pronounced so that the roch part rhymes with loch) meaning “to work or cook in a disorganized or unsanitary manner.”

34. CRAFTY-SICK

Another Shakespearean invention, this time from Henry IV Part 2, meaning “pretending to be unwell.”

35. CREEPMOUSE

It mightn’t sound like it, but creepmouse was a 16th-century term of endearment, in particular for a young child or baby.

36. CROOCHIE-PROOCHLES

Probably a corruption of crooked and prickles, croochie-proochles is an old Scots dialect word for a feeling of discomfort that comes from sitting in a constricted, cramped position for too long.

37. CRUTLE

An old English dialect word meaning “to recover from a severe illness.”

38. CUCKOO-LAMB

As well as being another name for a late-season lamb, a cuckoo-lamb is a child born to older parents.

39. CUDDLE-ME-BUFF

An old Yorkshire word for alcohol, particularly when it’s been warmed or sweetened.

40. CULF

All those loose feathers and bits of fluff that come out of pillows and cushions? That’s the .

Hate Is A Strong Word; Meaning Of “Strong Word”?

Hello,

What is the meaning of “strong word” in the following sentences? My understanding of the expression is the following: if a word is strong, it will have a great effect on people’s feelings or thoughts, it is a powerful word, it will have a great effect on someone. Is my understanding of the expression correct? Also, can you give me a better definition of the expression.

1. Mike: I hate my father. Greg: hate is a strong word.

2. You shouldn’t tell people they are ugly, ugly is a strong word.

3, A teacher should never tell his students that they are stupid, stupid is a strong word and telling students they are stupid will hurt their feelings.

4. Even is she is fat, it’s not nice to tell her she is fat. Fat is a strong word.

Yes, you’re completely right.. A strong word is that one leaving a great impact on others. In English we have strong words and mild ones. A mild word is a word that you can use in many different occasions without worrying that it may upset or bother someone. All the four examples that you’ve just given seem fine to me; I would use the ”strong word” expression in the same sentences that you wrote up there. Sometimes a strong word can be considered offensive but there’s still that fine line between strong words and offensiveness so definitely it’s not like ”swearing”.

yes, you understand the meaning of strong in that use. Strong as in severe, harsh, perhaps excessive. Extreme in meaning.

“I hate my mom”. “That is a bit extreme, you don’t really mean that”

Sort of means when something is said in terms of black and white when the reality is some shade of gray. Strong words do not leave much room for variation, for nuance, for shading the meaning.

I don’t particularly like the discouragement of the use of strong terms simply because they may cause hurt (as in number 3). Sometimes hurt is precisely what is required. Causing hurt is not the reason a teacher shouldn’t call someone stupid, it is because no student is really stupid and if they were, it would do no good to call them that anyway

I don’t consider fat a strong word. Disgustingly obese would be strong, harsh, excessive. Fat is simply the opposite of thin, and covers a wide range of conditions. Calling someone a PIG, or a COW, now maybe that would be a bit too strong.

And strong doesn’t always apply to negatives; calling someone brilliant or a genius could be too strong.

You sort of got it… Strong word can also mean it is an extreme ie using the term “morbidly obese” would make us think she’s bigger than saying she’s “fat” Hate is a strong word because it’s on the far end of the spectrum, it’s committed, and it leaves no room for doubt as to what you think. For instance if you say “I don’t like spinach.” it could mean “I love spinach.” “I dislike spinach” “I loathe spinach” or “I hate spinach”

Source(s): Just my take…

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A “strong word” (or phrase) is one that represents or evokes powerful emotions.

Such terms include love/hate, ugly/beautiful, brilliant/stupid, skinny/fat, live/die, rich/poor, as well as sex, fear, and political verbiage.

You have the correct understanding and definition of the phrase.

“Hate” has devolved into more of a dislike than anything. We should come up with a stronger word, perhaps di-hate?

Hate – have strong dislike of; bear malice to.

Ugly – unpleasing or repulsive to sight, morraly repulsive, vile, discreditable, unpleasant, unpleasantly suggestive, threatening, unpromising.

Stupid – in a state of stupor or lethargy; dull by nature, slow-witted, lacking in sensibility, obtuss, crass, characteristic of a person of this nature.

Fat – fed up for slaughter, fatted; well-fed,plump, corpulent, thick, substantial, greasy, oily, unctuous; slow witted, indolent.

Source(s): Oxford Concise Dictionary

Those words are all considered to some as having a negative connotation.

For the best answers, search on this site https://shorturl.im/1Mvxg

it means powerful. the entire sentence means that hate may be too intense (when used in this manner.) dislike would probably be better.

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Positive Words That Start With C

Yes you can! Having a positive, can-do attitude makes you seem confident, cheerful, and capable. If you’d like to include more positive words in your life, check out a classy and clever list of complimentary words that start with C.

Positive C word Chum

Positive Words That Have 4 or Fewer Letters

Feeling chic today? Or maybe just cute and cozy? No matter how your day is going, you can find a use for these nice words that start with C and include 4 or fewer letters.

Positive Words That Have 5 Letters

It’s time to cater to your charm, champ! Whether you’re full of cheer or you’re feeling chill, these positive words are sure to clean up your day.

Positive Words That Have 6 Letters

Chances are, you’re not exactly content with your positive vocabulary. Keep it classy with these C words that include 6 or more letters!

Positive Words That Have 7 Letters

Time to prove that you’re a capable wordsmith. Let these positive words with 7 letters cascade through your sentences. You’ll cherish the comfort they bring!

Positive Words That Have 8 Letters

Even cultured champions could use a little more charisma. Keep these C words in mind when describing charming characteristics.

Positive Words That Have 9 Letters

Everyone has that confident, convivial friend who is the life of the party. Keep these words with 9 letters in mind for civilized, congenial conversation.

Positive Words That Have 10 or More Letters

Character count can’t keep you down! Check out these captivating compliments for commendable chums.

Words That Start With C in a Sentence

Having a list of positive words is cause for celebration – but how can you use them in casual conversation? Keep reading for examples of positive words that start with C in different situations.

The theme for Esther’s wedding is classic and elegant, like a wedding from the 1940s.

Thank you so much for the cookies; you’re so considerate!

Robert and Esteban have always had a friendly, congenial relationship.

You’re an excellent employee because you are so committed to getting results.

Sean’s 25 years of faithful service as a firefighter is commendable.

After a year apart, Hannah’s caress was instantly calming for her husband.

The new spy thriller is completely captivating – I was on the edge of my seat!

Isla’s outfits are always so stylish and chic.

We encourage team members to be communicative with management when they see a problem.

I cherish our precious time together.

The Importance of Positivity

Having a positive outlook can make even the most difficult situations seem sunny. It’s also helpful to use positive words when you’re describing yourself or other people. For more ideas on how to talk about yourself, check out these helpful career tips for describing your personality.

List Of Unusual Words Beginning With U

uakari

short-tailed, long-haired monkey

uberous

yielding an abundance of milk; abounding

uberty

fruitfulness; abundant productiveness

ubi

whereabouts; permanent or present location

ubication

condition of being in a certain location

ubiety

location; state of being in a definite place

ubiquarian

one who seems to be everywhere at once

ubiquitarianism

belief that Christ is everywhere

ubity

place or locality

ucalegon

neighbour whose house is on fire

udal

form of land tenure in Orkney and Shetland islands

udometer

instrument for measuring rainfall

ufology

study of alien spacecraft

ughten

morning twilight

uguisu

olive-plumed bush warbler

uintathere

extinct Pleistocene hoofed herbivore

ukase

edict; proclamation by an autocratic government

ukeke

Hawaiian mouth harp with two or three strings

ulatrophy

atrophy of the gums

uletic

of, like or pertaining to the gums

uliginous

slimy; oozy; swampy; growing in swampy places

ullage

quantity by which vessel is under full capacity

ullagone

cry of lamentation; funeral lament

ulmaceous

of or like elms

ulosis

formation of a scar

ulotrichous

having woolly hair

ultimation

process of bringing to a conclusion

ultimogeniture

inheritance by the last son

ultion

revenge; vengeance

ultracrepidate

to criticize beyond sphere of one’s knowledge

ultradian

of physiological cycles longer than an hour and shorter than a day

ultrafidian

going beyond faith

ultrageous

violently extreme

ultraism

holding extreme opinions on a subject

ultramicroscope

instrument for viewing extremely small objects

ultramontane

south of the Alps; supporting the Pope

ultroneous

spontaneous; voluntary

umbel

mass of flowers springing from a single center

umbelliferous

bearing umbels

umbilical

of, like or pertaining to the navel; related on the mother’s side

umbilicanimism

looking at the navel in search of enlightenment; omphaloskepsis

umbiliciform

shaped like a navel

umbo

central knob or boss of a shield

umbraculiform

shaped like an umbrella

umbraculum

umbrella or umbrella-like structure

umbrage

shade; foliage; offence

umbratic

shadowy; providing shade

umbratilous

shadowy; shaded; indoor; secluded

umbriferous

giving or bearing shade

umbril

visor on helmet to protect the eyes from light

umbrose

shade-giving; dusky

umlaut

two dots placed over a vowel to indicate change in vowel sound (Führer)

umstroke

circumference; edge

unalist

priest holding one benefice

unaneled

without extreme unction

unasinous

being equally stupid

unberufen

exclamation to avert ill luck following boasting

unbosom

to pour out; to tell freely

uncial

of, like or pertaining to an inch or an ounce

unciform

shaped like a hook

unconsentaneous

not in agreement

unction

anointing as right of consecration or healing; warmth of address

unctuous

slimy; oily; greasy; offensively suave and smug

undecennial

happening every eleven years

undeify

to deprive of the nature of a god

underbreath

subdued voice; rumour

underbridge

bridge carrying a road or railway

undercroft

crypt or vault under a church

underlap

piece of material that extends under another

undern

light midday meal

underwit

inferior wit; half-wit

undigenous

produced by the action of water

undight

to take off; to doff; to undo

undine

female water spirit

undinism

psychological obsession with urine and urination

undulationism

theory that light consists of waves

uneath

difficult; distressing; hard; scarce

ungual

of a claw, hoof, or talon; clawed

unguentary

of, like or pertaining to unguents; one who makes or sells unguents

unguiferous

bearing nails or claws

unguiform

shaped like a claw

unguligrade

walking on hoofs

unhouseled

not having received the Eucharist shortly before death

unicity

uniqueness; oneness

unicorn

carriage drawn by three horses in triangular formation

unicornic

resembling a unicorn

unifarious

arranged in a single row or series

unifilar

having only one thread or wire

unigeniture

state or fact of being the only begotten

unigenous

of the same origin, kind or sort

unipara

woman having given birth only once

uniparous

producing only one offspring at birth

uniphonous

producing only one variety of musical note

uniplicate

having only one fold

unipotent

powerful in one direction only

unisonous

in unison or agreement

universalism

belief in universal salvation

univocal

unmistakeable; unequivocal

univocalic

having only one vowel; written passage using only one vowel

univoltine

having one brood a year

univorous

living on only one host or source of food

unligable

unable to be bound together

unprevaricate

not perverted

unreeve

to withdraw a rope from an opening

unseel

to unsew the eyes of

unsinew

to take the strength from

unstercorated

not manured

unwithdrawing

liberal; lavish

upaithric

roofless; open to the sky

upas

poisonous or harmful institution or influence

upbuilding

development; edification

upcast

upward throw; material thrown up

upher

rough pole made of fir and used in scaffolding

uplong

extending upward from

uprist

rising; uprising

upspeak

to begin to speak

upsy

in the manner of; thoroughly

uraniferous

bearing uranium

uraniscus

roof of the mouth

uranism

male homosexuality

uranography

descriptive astronomy and mapping

uranology

study of the heavens; astronomy

uranomancy

divination by studying the heavens

uranomania

obsession with the idea of divinity

uranometry

measurement of distances between heavenly bodies

uranophobia

fear of heaven

uranoplasty

plastic surgery on the hard palate

uranoscopy

star-watching

urbacity

excessive pride in one’s city

urbanist

expert in urban planning

urbanology

study of cities

urbarial

founded on a register of landed property

urbicide

destruction of a city

urbicolous

dwelling in cities

urbiculture

cultivation or development of urban life

urceiform

shaped like a pitcher

urceolate

shaped like a pitcher

urceus

single-handled jug or pitcher

urdé

pointed; having points

urdee

of a heraldic device, pointed or broken into parallel pointed projections

uredo

burning feeling in the skin

urenology

study of rust molds

urent

burning; stinging

urethroscope

instrument for viewing the interior of the urethra

uretic

of, like or pertaining to urine

urial

wild central Asian sheep with reddish coat and long curved horns

urimancy

divination by observing urine

uriniferous

bearing urine

urinometer

instrument for measuring specific gravity of urine

urkingdom

taxonomic group of organisms larger than a kingdom

urman

swampy pine forest

urochs

extinct wild ox or bison

urogenous

producing or produced in urine

urolith

small stone in the urinary tract

urology

study of urine; urinary tract

uromastix

spiky-tailed ground-dwelling lizard

uropoietic

secreting or excreting urine

uropygium

rump of a bird

urosthenic

having a tail designed for propulsion

urraca

noisy South American bird

ursicide

killing or killer of a bear

ursiform

having the shape or appearance of a bear

ursine

of, like or pertaining to bears

urtext

earliest version of a text; original unmodified version

urticaceous

of, like or pertaining to nettles

urticant

stinging; irritating

urticate

to sting; to flog with nettles

urubu

black tropical New World vulture

usageaster

self-appointed and conservative language usage expert

ushabti

figurine of deceased person placed in Egyptian tomb

usitative

signifying a usual act

ustion

action of burning or searing

ustulation

burning; roasting

usucaption

acquisition of property by long usage and enjoyment

usufruct

the right to use and enjoy something

utile

profitable; useful

utilitarianism

belief that utility of actions determines moral value

utinam

earnest wish or desire

utraquist

person speaking two or both of two languages

utricide

one who stabs an inflated skin vessel instead of killing someone

utricle

small cavity or sac

utriculiform

shaped like a small cavity or sac

utriform

shaped like a leather bottle or flask

uvala

irregular depression in a karst terrain

uvelloid

resembling a small cluster of grapes

uxorial

of, like or pertaining to a wife

uxoricide

killing of one’s own wife

uxorious

excessively fond of one’s wife