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ARCHIVED: In Microsoft Word, how do I justify text on a page?
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To space text evenly on the page in Microsoft Word, follow the appropriate instructions below.
On this page:
Changing the vertical alignment
Word 2010 and 2007 for Windows
tab, open the Page Setup... dialog box (using the button in the lower right corner of the Page Setup group).
In the “Vertical alignment:” box, select
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Word for Mac OS X
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Changing the horizontal alignment
Note: Because the last line of text in a paragraph is often shorter than the other lines, it may not appear to be justified. To justify the last line in a justified paragraph, place the insertion point at the end of the last line, and then press Shift-Enter (Shift-Return on a Mac). Use the Enter key on the main keyboard, not on the keypad. This will insert a soft return (i.e., a non-paragraph-ending return). Be aware that justifying a very short line of text may look odd because of the large amount of space that will be created between the words.
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Word 2010 and 2007 for Windows and Word 2011 for Mac
Select the text you want to justify.
( ) in the “Paragraph” group*.
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Word 2008 and earlier for Mac
Select the text you want to justify.
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*Alternatively, after selecting the text and select Paragraph. In the Paragraph dialog box, select the Indents and Spacing tab and, from the Alignment drop-down list, select Justified.
The above instructions were adapted from the following articles:
This article is also available as a TechRepublic download and as a TechRepublic gallery.
Word 2007, part of the Microsoft Office 2007 suite, has many built-in features that can enhance your documents and the manner in which you communicate information to your audience. One of the most common and yet still useful features in this category is the table format. Creating and formatting tables in Word 2007 is different from how you did it Word 2003, but you may actually find it easier.
Create a table
You can also choose one of the first two items from the list shown in Figure B and insert a table by way of the Insert Table dialog box ( Figure D) or by drawing a table.
Several pre-made table templates are available on the Insert tab listed under the Quick Tables item ( Figure F). You can insert calendars, double tables, and tabular lists, to name just a few.
Format a table
Once you create a table and populate it with data, the next step is to format the table. Proper formatting will help your table convey just the information you want it to.
Design Ribbon under Table Tools
As part of the Office 2007 interface, additional tabs and menu items are revealed to the user when they are needed. In this case, a new high-level tab, Table Tools, is added to the interface whenever you are interacting with a table element inside a Word document. The two tabs under Table Tools contain all of the various formatting tools you need to customize your table.
In Word 2007, whenever you are inside a table within your document, the Ribbon interface changes to the Design Ribbon under Table Tools ( Figure G).
From the Design Ribbon, you can set format characteristics like header row, first column, shading, borders, and color. You can use one of the predefined styles listed on the Ribbon or you can create something on your own. These format settings can be applied to a specific cell, row, column, or to the entire table.
The Design Ribbon also includes a section where you can set the type of line you would like to use, the point size of that line, and the color of that line ( Figure H).
In another area on the Design Ribbon under Table Tools, you can set shading and place or remove border lines. The number of choices offers you a tremendous amount of formatting flexibility ( Figure I).
Layout Ribbon under Table Tools
Additional formatting options are available on the Layout Ribbon under Table Tools, shown in Figure J.
Among the more important formatting decisions you will have to make about your table is how to align it on the page and how to space the cells within the table itself.
Aligning individual cells, rows, columns, and the entire table can all be accomplished with the buttons located in the Alignment section of the Layout Ribbon (Figure J) under Table Tools. You can also change text direction and cell margins in this area of the Ribbon ( Figure L).
The Layout Ribbon (Figure J) under Table Tools is also where you can insert rows and columns into your table, either at the ends or in between existing rows and columns.
Microsoft Office 2007 includes numerous themes and templates for each of the applications in the suite, including Word 2007 tables. One of the features that differentiates Office 2007 from Office 2003 is the ability to preview these templates and themes before you commit to them. Figure N shows a simple table with basic formatting. Holding the mouse over the Table Styles shown on the Design Ribbon (Figure G) under Table Tools will preview what the table would like if that pre-made style were applied ( Figure O).
As you can see, the way you create and format tables in Word 2007 is different from the way you performed the same task in Office 2003 and earlier. However, the Ribbon interface actually makes sense when you are working on tables in Word. It may take some getting used to, but I think in the long run, the Ribbon will be seen as a beneficial feature and not a drawback.
Dix (ten), cent (one hundred), mille (one thousand), dix milles (ten thousand)?
No, no, no, French learner, I am not teaching you how to count by intervals in French!
Instead, I am asking you: How many words do you have to know to be “fluent” or “proficient” in French?
And not only that, but which words do you need to know?
Well, that’s where the complication starts, isn’t it?
When it comes to learning French, it seems that there are suggestions aplenty for acquiring vocabulary. We are bombarded with vocabulary flashcards, vocabulary builders, daily vocabulary and even shopping vocabulary.
But which words do you actually need to know? And how many words do you really need to know in order to communicate effectively in French? We will find out in this post!
Why Vocabulary Size Matters
Being aware of how many words one needs to know in a target language is a real concern for many language learners.
While aiming to know a certain number of words should not be the only goal when learning French, it is useful to know how many words are needed to be “proficient” or “fluent” in the language.
Instead of focusing on just a number, then, a learner’s goal should be to learn a certain number of words alongside grammatical constructions for using said words in everyday situations. Because of this, it is best to learn vocabulary in context. This means learning vocabulary in simple example sentences where the word is displayed correctly to showcase its use and meaning.
Further, learners should aim to grow their active vocabulary. Active vocabulary includes the words that you can recall easily when speaking or writing, whereas a passive vocabulary includes the words that you can recognize when listening or reading. Having a large active vocabulary allows learners to express themselves accurately and concisely.
What Constitutes a Word?
One problem that learners of French (or any language) often encounter is that the definition of a “word” varies. This makes it hard to quantify how many words a learner already knows as well as to figure out how many words they should know in a target language.
On one hand, a word can be seen as a distinct unit that has its own spelling and/or pronunciation. For example, take the words fille (girl) and filles (girls) in French. These could be regarded as separate words because, even though they are pronounced the same, they have different meanings and are spelled differently.
On the other hand, these two words are actually from the same “root” word and in the same “word family.” That means that filles (girls) is just a variant (in this case, the plural form) of fille (girl). Both instances simply constitute two variants of the same word. It is easier to learn “roots” or “word families,” especially in the case of nouns, adjectives and verbs where one “word” may have dozens of variants such as verb conjugations, plurals and gender agreements.
French further complicates word counting because one word may have multiple meanings. For example, personne can mean both “person” and “no one.”
For our purposes, we are going to say that variants constitute the same root word and that a word can have multiple meanings. In other words, when figuring out word goals, learners should count a word and all its variants as a single word.
Now that we have decided what constitutes a word, we need to figure out how many words a French learner should know for getting by in everyday French conversations. To do that, let’s look at some statistics about the French language.
According to the French dictionary , there are approximately 130,000 words in the French language-but you do not have to know all of them! The average adult vocabulary in English is 20,000-35,000 words, and we can assume that this number is comparable to the average adult French vocabulary.
So, what does all this mean? Well, first of all, one should not aim to learn all the words in the French language-even French speakers do not know then all.
Learners do not have to know 35,000 words, either. Given that a big part of those 20,000-35,000 words are vocabulary that speakers do not use in day-to-day speech (passive vocabulary), French learners should focus on growing their active vocabulary. And there is good news!
The average active vocabulary size is around 5,000 root words or word families.
Further, according to the Universe of Memory, knowing the most common 1,000 words in a language will allow you to understand 80% of the language, and knowing the most common 5,000 words in a language will allow you to understand 98% of the language.
Therefore, to be “proficient” in French, you should have around 5,000 words in your active vocabulary.
Getting to 5,000 Words of Active Vocabulary
Despite not needing to know 130,000 French words, reaching a vocabulary of 5,000 words is still a daunting task. But never fear! A step-by-step process is here.
When growing your vocabulary, you should learn new words strategically.
Aim to learn the most common words in the language. You can do this by consulting some of the frequency lists t hat are included below. A frequency list is a collection of words that compiles the most common words by how often they are used. I also suggest using topic-specific vocabulary lists to learn vocabulary catered to a learner’s needs.
Remember, a good active vocabulary consists of the most useful words for your purpose. There is no sense in learning the French word for “limited liability partnership” if you do not imagine yourself in a situation where you would need to say it.
Your First 1,000 Words
Your first 1,000 acquired words should focus on the most common, everyday words and expressions in the French language. This includes knowing articles such as “the” and “a” (as well as their rules and usage), greetings and common vocabulary from everyday topics such as food, colors, the household, travel, etc.
You should also aim to familiarize yourself with grammar during this stage of vocabulary acquisition. Remember, you want to learn these words in context. Learning the word table (table) without knowing that it is feminine and takes the articles la (the) and une (a) will only cause problems later down the road.
For specific vocabulary lists on common topics, I suggest you check out the following:
Frenchetc or Ielanguages French: Both of these websites have the most common vocabulary and grammar constructions in French sorted into topics and tutorials. They are also the best lists to consult if you are a beginner and you have no previous knowledge of French.
101Languages: 101Languages has compiled a list of the most common 1,000 words used in French. This list can be downloaded for easy access on your computer, tablet or phone. It includes variants as separate words so it would be most useful to learn each word in the context of their examples. The top 100 words have audio files for pronunciation help.
Memrise: Memrise has a frequency list of the most common 5,000 words in French, which is ideal for learners. This list does not include variants, so learners should know enough about grammar to know how a word functions in a multitude of contexts such as verb conjugations, other forms, gender and plural agreement rules-and more.
FluentU takes real-world videos-like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks-and turns them into personalized language learning lessons.
Other sites use scripted content. FluentU uses a natural approach that helps you ease into the French language and culture over time. You’ll learn French as it’s actually spoken by real people.
FluentU has a wide variety of great content, like interviews and web series, as you can see here:
You can tap on any word to look it up instantly. Every definition has examples that have been written to help you understand how the word is used.
You’ll receive video recommendations that suit your interests and current level of progress.
Start using FluentU on the website with your computer or tablet or, better yet, download the FluentU app from the iTunes or Google Play stores.
Reaching 2,500 Words
By the halfway point to a strong active vocabulary, learners should have moved away from the most common French words. Instead, now is the time to learn vocabulary that will allow the learner to achieve their goals with the French language.
Do you plan to shop in a Francophone community? Learn shopping vocabulary. Do you plan to work? Focus on business French. Want to move to France? Study informal French.
Learners should also be actively accessing French media and recording unknown words that they come across. By doing this, learners can experience French “in the wild.” Remember: The French language is not confined to a word list; it is a changing language that is actually used by speakers every day. Try following French news or listening to French music to see French in its natural environment.
An Active Vocabulary of 5,000 Words
At 5,000 words of an active vocabulary, learners should be able to understand and use more and more French every day. Better yet, since they have probably come across a lot of French words along the way, learners should have a considerable passive vocabulary as well (no doubt larger than 5,000 words!), so understanding French should be increasingly easier.
Like with 2,500 words, learners should use the last stretch to further specialize their vocabulary. This does not mean a learner should ignore common, everyday words that are heard often in media or while reading. But again, focusing on goals can lead a learner in the appropriate direction.
Well, the limit is actually 130,000 words, but I would not be worried about exhausting all those words any time soon.
So get your device or your flashcards ready! A bountiful active French vocabulary is within your reach!
If you liked this post, something tells me that you’ll love FluentU, the best way to learn French with real-world videos.
Experience French immersion online!
Among other formatting options, Microsoft Word lets you adjust the page layout of a document. Two key factors in this respect are the margins and page orientation. Both of these have a big effect on how a document looks, so check out our guide below to find out how they work.
Margins in Microsoft Word
The margins in a document are the spaces at the edge of each page. You may need to change these to leave space to make notes (e.g., in a college paper). Or you may simply want to control where text appears on the page. In either case, you can adjust the margins in a document by:
Selecting on of the preset margin options.
Gutter margin size and position – A gutter margin is extra space on the page used for binding. This won’t be necessary for most documents, but you can add one here if required.
Mirror margins – Selecting mirror margins from the Multiple Pages submenu will change the “Left” and “Right” margin options to “Inner” and “Outer” margins. This ensures that the margins on facing pages are equal if you’re binding something as a book.
You can also use the Apply To options in the Page Setup menu to control which part of the document you format (e.g., Whole document, This section only, or This point forward). However, you may also want to add your own section breaks for full control over where margin formatting is applied.
Page orientation refers to whether the document is landscape or portrait. Most documents will be portrait, which is the default in Microsoft Word. But the landscape format can be useful in some cases, such as when a document contains illustrations or charts too wide to fit on a portrait page.
To adjust the page orientation in a whole Microsoft Word document:
Select either Portrait or Landscape as required.
To change the orientation of part of a document, you will need to either:
Add section breaks before and after the section you want to format.
Open the Page Setup window, select an orientation, and pick which part of the document you want to format via the Apply To menu (as described above in relation to margins).
This will let you present one page in a landscape format (e.g., to fit in a chart). But make sure to add section breaks before changing the orientation.
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