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There are two functions for calculating the inverse tangent or arctan in Excel. These two functions are ATAN and ATAN2 (“atan” is short for arctangent), and they each have specific uses depending on the desired results that you’d like to obtain and the inputs available. In general, I’d recommend using ATAN if:
You are only concerned with the first quadrant of the unit circle
You don’t know the x and yvalues
However, use the ATAN2 function if:
You want to return angles in all four quadrants of the unit circle
You know the x and yvalues
Using ATAN to Calculate Arctan in ExcelThe ATAN function returns a result between π/2 and π/2 radians (or 90 and 90 degrees), or in other words, in the first and fourth quadrants.
The syntax is:
ATAN(number)
There is only one argument to ATAN: the number from which you want to calculate the inverse tangent. And since there is only one argument, Excel cannot determine which quadrant the solution should be in.
The absolute values of the angles never exceed 90 degrees, and
Values in the second (II) quadrant in column C are now in the fourth quadrant in column F.
Values in the third (III) quadrant in column C are now in the first quadrant in column F.
Plotting the results on the unit circle looks like this:
Since there is only one argument to the ATAN function, Excel calculates the value of y/x before if evaluates the ATAN function.
It cannot determine, then, whether the input to ATAN is negative because the xvalue or the yvalue is negative. Therefore, it can’t tell if the result should be in the second quadrant or the fourth quadrant, so it just defaults to the fourth quadrant.
Likewise, when the input value is positive, the original quadrant could be either the first (both x and y positive) or third (both x and y negative).
We could use a complex nested IF function to get the results back into all four quadrants, but fortunately Excel has another function called ATAN2 to help us out.
Using ATAN2 to Calculate Arctan in ExcelThe ATAN2 function can also be used to calculate the inverse tangent in Excel. This function returns a result between π and π radians (or 180 and 180 degrees), using all four quadrants. The syntax is:
ATAN2(x_num,y_num)
There are two arguments:
By inputting two values to the function, Excel can determine which quadrant the value belongs in.
Quadrant 1 if both x and y are positive
Quadrant 2 if x is negative and y is positive
Quadrant 3 if both x and y are negative
Quadrant 4 if x is positive and y is negative
So if we use the formula
=DEGREES(ATAN2(x_num,y_num))
We get the following results:
Hopefully, now you understand the limitations of ATAN and when it’s better to use ATAN2 to calculate the inverse tangent or arctan in Excel.
In general, use ATAN if:
You are working only in the first quadrant
You don’t know the x or yvalues
Use the ATAN2 function if:
You need the angles in all four quadrants
The x and yvalues are known
How To Use The Excel Sumif Function
SUMIF is in a group of eight functions in Excel that split logical criteria into two parts (range + criteria). As a result, the syntax used to construct criteria is different, and SUMIF requires a cell range for the range argument, you can’t use an array.
SUMIF only supports a single condition. If you need to apply multiple criteria, use the SUMIFS function. If you need to manipulate values that appear in the range argument (i.e. extract the year from dates to use in criteria) see the SUMPRODUCT and/or FILTER functions.
Videos
Basic usageIn the worksheet shown, there are three SUMIF examples. In the first example (G6), SUMIF is configured to sum values greater than 100. In the second example (G7), SUMIF returns the sum of values where the color is “red”. In the last example (G8), SUMIF is configured to sum values where the state is “CA” (California).
=
SUMIF
(
B6:B10,
"Jim"
,
D6:D10)
// Rep = Jim
=
SUMIF
(
C6:C10,
"ca"
,
D6:D10)
// State = CA
Notice the equals sign (=) is not required when constructing “is equal to” criteria. Also notice SUMIF is not casesensitive. You can sum values where the Rep is Jim using “jim” or “Jim”.
Criteria in another cell Not equal toTo express "not equal to" criteria, use the "" operator surrounded by double quotes (""):
Again notice SUMIF is not casesensitive.
Blank cellsSUMIF can calculate sums based on cells that are blank or not blank. In the example below, SUMIF is used to sum the amounts in column C depending on whether column D contains "x" or is empty:
=
SUMIF
(
D5:D9,
""
,
C5:C9)
// blank
The best way to use SUMIF with dates is to refer to a valid date in another cell, or use the DATE function. The example below shows both methods:
=
SUMIF
(
B5:B9,
"<"
&
DATE
(
2019
,
3
,
1
),
C5:C9)
WildcardsThe SUMIF function supports wildcards, as seen in the example below:
=
SUMIF
(
B5:B9,
"mi*"
,
C5:C9)
// begins with "mi"
=
SUMIF
(
B5:B9,
"*ota"
,
C5:C9)
// ends with "ota"
=
SUMIF
(
B5:B9,
"????"
,
C5:C9)
// contains 4 characters
See below for more SUMIF formula examples.
Notes
SUMIF only supports one condition. Use the SUMIFS function for multiple criteria.
When sum_range is omitted, the cells in range will be summed.
Cell references in criteria are not enclosed in quotes, i.e. "
The wildcard characters ? and * can be used in criteria. A question mark matches any one character and an asterisk matches any sequence of characters (zero or more).
To find a literal question mark or asterisk, use a tilde (~) in front question mark or asterisk (i.e. ~?, ~*).
SUMIFS requires a range, you can't substitute an array.
How To Use The Excel Countif Function
COUNTIF is in a group of eight functions in Excel that split logical criteria into two parts (range + criteria). As a result, the syntax used to construct criteria is different, and COUNTIF requires a cell range, you can’t use an array.
COUNTIF only supports a single condition. If you need to apply multiple criteria, use the COUNTIFS function. If you need to manipulate values in the range argument as part of a logical test, see the SUMPRODUCT and/or FILTER functions.
Basic exampleIn the worksheet shown above, the following formulas are used in cells G5, G6, and G7:
=
COUNTIF
(
B5:B12,
"jim"
)
// count name = "jim"
=
COUNTIF
(
C5:C12,
"ca"
)
// count state = "ca"
Notice COUNTIF is not casesensitive, “CA” and “ca” are treated the same.
Double quotes (“”) in criteriaIn general, text values need to be enclosed in double quotes (“”), and numbers do not. However, when a logical operator is included with a number, the number and operator must be enclosed in quotes, as seen in the second example below:
=
COUNTIF
(
A1:A10,
100
)
// count cells equal to 100
=
COUNTIF
(
A1:A10,
"jim"
)
// count cells equal to "jim"
Value from another cellA value from another cell can be included in criteria using concatenation. In the example below, COUNTIF will return the count of values in A1:A10 that are less than the value in cell B1. Notice the less than operator (which is text) is enclosed in quotes.
=
COUNTIF
(
A1:A10,
"<"
&
B1)
// count cells less than B1
Not equal toTo construct “not equal to” criteria, use the “” operator surrounded by double quotes (“”). For example, the formula below will count cells not equal to “red” in the range A1:A10:
Blank cellsCOUNTIF can count cells that are blank or not blank. The formulas below count blank and not blank cells in the range A1:A10:
=
COUNTIF
(
A1:A10,
""
)
// blank
DatesThe easiest way to use COUNTIF with dates is to refer to a valid date in another cell with a cell reference. For example, to count cells in A1:A10 that contain a date greater than the date in B1, you can use a formula like this:
The safest way hardcode a date into COUNTIF is to use the DATE function. This ensures Excel will understand the date. To count cells in A1:A10 that contain a date less than April 1, 2023, you can use a formula like this
=
COUNTIF
(
A1:A10,
"<"
&
DATE
(
2020
,
4
,
1
))
// dates less than 1Apr2020
WildcardsThe wildcard characters question mark (?), asterisk(*), or tilde (~) can be used in criteria. A question mark (?) matches any one character and an asterisk (*) matches zero or more characters of any kind. For example, to count cells in a A1:A5 that contain the text "apple" anywhere, you can use a formula like this:
=
COUNTIF
(
A1:A5,
"*apple*"
)
// cells that contain "apple"
To count cells in A1:A5 that contain any 3 text characters, you can use:
=
COUNTIF
(
A1:A5,
"???"
)
// cells that contain any 3 characters
The tilde (~) is an escape character to match literal wildcards. For example, to count a literal question mark (?), asterisk(*), or tilde (~), add a tilde in front of the wildcard (i.e. ~?, ~*, ~~).
Notes
COUNTIF is not casesensitive. Use the EXACT function for casesensitive counts.
COUNTIF only supports one condition. Use the COUNTIFS function for multiple criteria.
Cell references in criteria are not enclosed in quotes, i.e. "
The wildcard characters ? and * can be used in criteria. A question mark matches any one character and an asterisk matches any sequence of characters (zero or more).
To match a literal question mark or asterisk, use a tilde (~) in front question mark or asterisk (i.e. ~?, ~*).
COUNTIF requires a range, you can't substitute an array.
COUNTIF returns incorrect results when used to match strings longer than 255 characters.
COUNTIF will return a #VALUE error when referencing another workbook that is closed.
How To Use The Excel Sort Function
The SORT function sorts the contents of a range or array in ascending or descending order with a formula. The result from SORT is a dynamic array of values that will “spill” onto the worksheet into a range. If values in the source data change, the result from SORT will update automatically.
The SORT function takes four arguments: array, sort_index, sort_order, and by_col. The first argument, array, is the range or array to be sorted. This is the only required argument. By default, the SORT function will sort values in ascending order using the first column in array. Use the optional arguments sort_index and sort_order to control which column to sort by, and the order to sort by (ascending or descending). Sort_index should be a number corresponding to the column (or row) used for sorting. For example, to sort by the third column in a range of data, use 3 for sort_index. The optional sort_order argument determines sort direction. Use 1 for ascending order and 1 for descending order. By default, the SORT function will sort data vertically by rows. To sort a range horizontally by columns, set the fourth argument, by_col, to TRUE.
Basic ExamplesTo sort a range by the first column in ascending order:
=
SORT
(
range)
// sort by column 1, ascending
=
SORT
(
range,
1
,
1
)
// sort by column 1, ascending
To sort a range by the first column in descending order:
=
SORT
(
range,
1
,

1
)
// sort by column 1, descending
To sort a range by the second column in descending order:
=
SORT
(
range,
2
,

1
)
// sort by column 1, ascending
To sort a range horizontally (by column) using values in row 1 in descending order, set the fourth argument, by_col, to TRUE or 1:
=
SORT
(
range,
1
,

1
,
TRUE
)
=
SORT
(
range,
1
,

1
,
1
)
Example – sort by scoreIn the example shown above, data includes names in column B and scores in column C. In cell E5, the SORT function is used to sort the data by score in descending order:
=
SORT
(
B5:C14,
2
,

1
)
// sort by scores in descending order
The SORT function extracts all values, sorted in descending order by score, and results “spill” into the range E5:F14. To sort by score in ascending order, omit sort_order or to 1 like this:
=
SORT
(
B5:C14,
2
)
// sort by score in ascending order
=
SORT
(
B5:C14,
2
,
1
)
// sort by score in ascending order
Sort by more than one levelUnlike the SORTBY function, the SORT function does not provide a way to sort data by more than one level. However, by using array constants for sort_index and sort_order, it can be done. This video explains how.
SORT is a new function available in Excel 365 only.
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